La France, officiellement République française, est un pays avec lequel presque tous les voyageurs ont des relations. Beaucoup rêvent de sa joie de vivre illustrée par ses innombrables cafés, ses villages pittoresques et sa gastronomie de renommée mondiale. Certains viennent suivre la trace des grands philosophes, écrivains et artistes français, ou s’immerger dans le beau langage qu’il a donné au monde. Et d'autres encore sont attirés par la diversité géographique du pays, avec ses longues côtes, ses immenses chaînes de montagnes et ses paysages à couper le souffle.
La France est le pays le plus visité du monde depuis plus de vingt ans. Il a reçu 89 millions de visiteurs en 2018. Tous ces gens viennent en France pour plusieurs raisons: ses villes recèlent certains des plus grands trésors du continent, ses campagnes sont prospères et bien entretenues et ses dizaines d'attractions touristiques majeures, notamment Le plus populaire d'Europe, Disneyland Paris. La France est l’un des pays les plus diversifiés d’Europe sur le plan géographique. Elle renferme des régions aussi différentes que le Paris urbain chic, la Côte d'Azur ensoleillée, les plages atlantiques balayées par le vent, les stations de ski enneigées des Alpes françaises, les châteaux Renaissance de la vallée de la Loire, La Bretagne celtique et le rêve de l'historien c'est la Normandie.
La France est un pays riche en émotions et en politiques turbulentes, mais aussi un lieu de pensée rationnelle et de trésors des Lumières. Surtout, il est réputé pour sa cuisine, sa culture et son histoire. Quoi que vous souhaitiez passer des vacances, vous êtes sur le point de le trouver en France.
La "France métropolitaine" comprend les 12 régions administratives (françaises: régions) situées sur le continent plus la Corse, autrement dit l'ensemble du territoire français au sein de l'Europe. Celles-ci sont distinctes des territoires d'outre-mer du pays sur d'autres continents, dont il est question ci-dessous. Les 96 départements sont le niveau le plus bas de la division administrative, les deux tiers d'entre eux étant nommés d'après un fleuve et la plupart des autres prenant en compte un autre élément naturel, tel qu'une montagne ou une mer.
Régions France – Carte couleur
Péninsule occidentale accidentée, terre des Celtes, des cromlechs et des crêpes
Centre-Val de Loire
Une région essentiellement agricole et viticole, avec des vallées fluviales, des châteaux et des villes historiques le long de la Loire.
Le lieu de naissance de Napoléon est une île subtropicale de la Méditerranée sous influence italienne.
Une région où la culture européenne plus large et surtout germanique a fusionné avec la française, donnant lieu à des résultats intéressants.
Une région où les guerres mondiales et l'essor et le déclin de l'industrie lourde ont laissé de nombreuses cicatrices.
Ile de France
La métropole densément peuplée de Paris et la riche campagne environnante.
La plus grande région française, définie plus par ses contrastes enchanteurs que comme un tout cohérent.
Les possessions françaises à travers le monde (cliquez pour agrandir)
Outre la France métropolitaine, également connue sous le nom de l'Hexagone pour sa forme, il existe cinq départements d'outre-mer (DOM), chacun faisant partie intégrante de la France, comme tout autre département: la Guyane française en Amérique du Sud, la Guadeloupe et la Martinique en Caraïbes et Mayotte et La Réunion parmi les îles de l’Afrique de l’Est.
En outre, la France compte six territoires d'outre-mer organisés (Polynésie française, Nouvelle-Calédonie, Saint-Barthélemy, Saint-Martin, Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon et Wallis-et-Futuna) et des îles isolées et inhabitées comme la nature. réserves, y compris l’île de Clipperton et les terres australes et antarctiques françaises. Bien qu'elles fassent partie de la France administrativement, ces entités ne sont pas décrites plus en détail ici, mais dans leurs propres articles.
En raison de ses nombreux départements et territoires d'outre-mer disséminés dans le monde entier, la France couvre douze fuseaux horaires, soit plus que tout autre pays. Cependant, toute la France métropolitaine utilise l'heure d'Europe centrale (UTC + 01: 00 en hiver, UTC + 02: 00 en été).
La France a de nombreuses villes d'intérêt pour les voyageurs; Vous trouverez ci-dessous une liste de neuf des plus remarquables:
48.85672.35081 Paris – la "Ville lumière", le roman et la tour Eiffel.
44.84-0.582 Bordeaux – ville du vin, hôtels particuliers en pierre et terrasses élégantes
43.70347.26633 Nice – le coeur de la côte d'azur avec une promenade de plage mondialement connue et l'entrée de la petite nation monégasque
50.62783.05834 Lille – une ville du nord dynamique connue pour son beau centre et sa vie culturelle active
45.764.845 Lyon – Capitale de la gastronomie française avec une histoire de la période romaine à la résistance
43.29645.376 Marseille – La deuxième ville cosmopolite de France, connue pour son port méditerranéen, ses calanques et ses fruits de mer
47.2181-1.55287 Nantes – une ville verte et très agréable à vivre connue pour Jules Verne, ses marins et sa culture bretonne
48.587.758 Strasbourg – un magnifique centre historique bordé de canaux et le siège de nombreuses institutions européennes
43.60451.4449 Toulouse – La "ville rose" est connue pour son architecture de brique distinctive et son atmosphère méridionale vibrante
43.5333334.51 La Camargue – l’un des plus grands deltas fluviaux et humides d’Europe, avec une forte culture provençale de tauromachie et de cow-boys.
48.8687192.78182 Disneyland Paris – l'attraction la plus visitée d'Europe, le Magic Kingdom possède même son propre hub TGV.
45.8336116.8653 Alpes françaises – Le Mont Blanc, la plus haute montagne d'Europe occidentale, est le pays du ski par excellence.
43.3656.8497224 Côte d'Azur – Côte méditerranéenne glamour avec stations balnéaires de classe supérieure, yachts et célébrités pour prendre un bain de soleil.
47.3988890.7027785 Vallée de la Loire – La célèbre vallée de la rivière, connue pour ses vins et ses châteaux de la Renaissance.
43.7961115.2238896 Luberon – La Provence stéréotypée de villages pittoresques, de joie de vivre et de vin.
48.636-1.51147 Mont Saint Michel – un monastère et une ville construits sur un minuscule affleurement de rocher dans le sable, qui est coupé du continent à marée haute.
43.7377786.3638898 La gorge du Verdon – un magnifique canyon fluvial de couleur turquoise, idéale pour faire du kayak, de la randonnée, de l'escalade ou tout simplement pour contourner les falaises calcaires.
66,6 millions (2016)
230 volts / 50 hertz et 400 volts / 50 hertz (Europlug, type E)
UTC + 01: 00
112, 15 (services médicaux d'urgence), 17 (police), 18 (services d'incendie)
C'est seulement avec le coeur que l'on peut voir correctement. Ce qui est essentiel est invisible pour les yeux.
—Antoine de Saint Exupéry, du Petit Prince
Climat et terrain
Pays géographiquement diversifié, la France présente des variations climatiques surprenantes pour sa taille. En règle générale, le climat va de plus en plus froid de nord à sud et plus humide de plus en plus sec d’ouest en est. La majeure partie du pays connaît des hivers tempérés et des étés chauds et souvent humides, notamment à Paris et dans la vallée de la Loire. Des hivers doux et humides et des étés frais persistent dans le nord et le nord-ouest (Bretagne, Normandie, Picardie, Nord-Pas-de-Calais), où le climat général est similaire à celui du sud de l'Angleterre. Le long de la frontière orientale (Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine), il existe un climat continental caractérisé par des hivers froids et froids et des étés chauds. La vallée du Rhône passe de cette région au sud plus chaud, bien que toute la région connaisse un vent fort, froid et sec, du nord au nord-ouest, appelé mistral. La Méditerranée (Languedoc-Roussillon, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, Corse) bénéficie d'hivers courts et doux et d'étés longs et chauds avec un ensoleillement élevé toute l'année. Le sud-ouest (Aquitaine, Midi-Pyrénées) connaît également des étés chauds mais beaucoup de pluie en hiver, affecté par l'Atlantique et les montagnes. Attendez-vous à des hivers froids avec beaucoup de neige dans les régions montagneuses: les Alpes, les Pyrénées et l'Auvergne. Cependant, les hivers peuvent parfois être clément et les propriétaires d’entreprises qui comptent sur le boom annuel des sports d’hiver sont laissés avec espoir.
La majeure partie du centre, de l'ouest et du nord de la France se compose de plaines plates ou de collines légèrement ondulées, ponctuées de nombreuses longues vallées fluviales. Cette vaste étendue de terres faciles, associée au climat maudit presque parfait, est ce qui rend l’agriculture française si riche et productive. Le reste du pays est montagneux, avec les Alpes du sud-est et les Pyrénées du sud-ouest parmi les plus hautes chaînes d'Europe occidentale. Les petites chaînes comprennent les Vosges et le Jura à l'est et le Massif Central au centre-sud. Le concept de terroir est extrêmement important pour les agriculteurs et les viticulteurs français et montre comment le climat, le type de sol et le terrain d'un lieu donné se combinent pour affecter le goût ou le caractère d'une culture.
Vous pouvez visiter la France à tout moment de l’année et, bien sûr, certaines régions se prêtent à certaines saisons (par exemple, les Alpes en hiver, Paris au printemps), mais en général, le printemps et l’automne offrent le mélange idéal de climat convenable du pays et une saison touristique plus calme. L'été est chaud et ensoleillé dans la plus grande partie de la France et de nombreux événements sont souvent organisés pour tenter le voyageur, qu'il s'agisse de festivals locaux, de saisons de concerts en plein air ou de la fête nationale du 14 juillet. Toutefois, il est conseillé aux voyageurs d'éviter le mois d'août, car c'est apparemment la totalité de la population française qui se lève et se dirige vers le sud pour les vacances. C'est la période la plus achalandée en matière de transport, avec samedi noir (le samedi du premier jour du mois) qui voit souvent jusqu'à 1000 km d'embouteillages sur le réseau routier. De plus, vous trouverez de nombreuses entreprises locales, en particulier dans les zones rurales et fermées pendant le mois entier, qu’il y ait ou non des visiteurs estivaux dans la région. En l'absence des habitants, les touristes étrangers regorgeant de touristes se pressent dans les principales attractions et villes du pays, et Paris en particulier peut voir les tarifs des chambres monter en flèche.
Les jours fériés français sont influencés par les grandes fêtes catholiques, à l'exception du Vendredi saint, qui n'est observé qu'en Alsace. La plupart d'entre eux tombent à des dates différentes selon les années. Cette liste comprend principalement Pâques (Pâques) qui a un jour férié le dimanche et le lundi. L'Assomption de Marie au ciel (Assomption) tombe toujours le 15 août, la Toussaint le 1er novembre et Noël (25 décembre). Les autres jours fériés sont le Nouvel An (Nouvel An / Jour de l'an, 1er janvier), le 1er mai (Fête du Travail, le 1er mai), le Jour de la victoire (8 mai, 8 mai), le 14 juillet (Fête nationale, le 14 juillet). et Jour de l'Armistice (Jour du souvenir, 11 novembre). Comme certains de ses voisins (notamment l’Espagne et l’Allemagne), la France dispose d’un vaste calendrier de jours fériés et de fêtes religieuses, mais contrairement à ces pays, ceux-ci ne sont généralement pas observés par les entreprises et les gouvernements.
Il est conseillé de planifier à l'avance vos préparatifs de voyage, en particulier pendant les vacances scolaires françaises qui durent généralement deux semaines dans les périodes suivantes: fin octobre au début novembre, Noël, Pâques et entre le jour de mai et le jour de la victoire. De plus, les écoles du pays tout entier font une pause estivale le premier vendredi de juillet et reviennent le premier lundi de septembre. Naturellement, ces jours-ci et autour de ces journées, les routes sont encombrées et les prix des trains et des avions montent en flèche. Si vous pouvez éviter de voyager pendant ces périodes, faites-le.
La France est peuplée depuis le néolithique. La région de la Dordogne est particulièrement riche en grottes préhistoriques, certaines utilisées comme habitation, d'autres comme des temples avec des peintures remarquables d'animaux et de chasseurs, tels que ceux trouvés à Lascaux.
Montée et chute de l'empire romain
L'histoire écrite a commencé en France avec l'invasion du territoire par les Romains, entre 118 et 50 av. Le territoire qui s'appelle aujourd'hui la France a été intégré à l'Empire romain et les Gaulois (nom donné aux Celtes par les Romains), qui y vivaient avant les invasions romaines, sont devenus des "gallo-romains". Les Gaulois vivaient également dans ce qui est maintenant l’Italie du Nord et, à ce titre, "Gallia Cisalpina" a été la première région gauloise à passer sous la domination romaine. Plus tard, la région qui est maintenant la Provence est passée sous le contrôle romain sous le nom de "Gallia Transalpina" (Gaule au-delà des Alpes) et c'est en tant que gouverneur de cette province que Jules César a manipulé la politique locale entre tribus gauloises de telle manière qu'il s'est battu. une guerre "défensive" (les gouverneurs de province ne sont pas autorisés à engager une guerre offensive de leur propre initiative) qui s'achève par la conquête de toute la Gaule et la défaite et la capture du chef gaulois et chef rebelle Vercingetorix lors de la bataille d'Alésia. Caeasar et son confident Aulus Hirtius (livre 8) ont écrit une collection de livres sur la guerre connus sous le nom de "De bello gallico" et le fléau des étudiants latins de toutes les époques, car la propagande est vantée pour son langage clair et concis et une des rares sources antiques où un personnage historique majeur parle de ses propres actions. César se réfère à la troisième personne du livre, une tendance que des représentations culturelles telles qu'Astérix ont copiée depuis. Les actes de César étaient d'une légalité douteuse en vertu du droit romain en vigueur à l'époque et sa célèbre traversée du Rubicon était déclenchée par la crainte de César de se voir poursuivi en justice s'il pénétrait en Italie sans armée. La conquête de la Gaule a donc joué un rôle déterminant dans la suite des événements qui ont entraîné la chute de la République romaine.
La domination romaine en Gaule était une période de paix et de prospérité relative, mais pendant la crise du troisième siècle, des usurpateurs locaux fondèrent un "Empire gaulois" qui contrôlait la Gaule et certaines parties de la Germanie pendant une période de faible contrôle central. Certains bâtiments construits par les Romains à l'époque sont encore existants et leurs routes sont restées largement utilisées jusqu'à l'avènement de l'automobile, car leur qualité dépassait de loin la construction de routes médiévales.
Avec la chute de l'empire romain d'Occident au 5ème siècle après JC, il ne restait que des zones habitées par les descendants des mariages mixtes entre gallo-romains et orientaux "barbares" (principalement les Francs, mais aussi d'autres tribus comme les "Burgondes").
L'héritage de la présence romaine est encore visible, en particulier dans la partie sud du pays où les cirques romains sont encore utilisés pour les corridas et les concerts de rock and roll. Certaines des principales routes de France suivent encore les routes tracées il y a 2 000 ans et l'organisation urbaine de nombreux centres-villes anciens retranscrit encore le cardo et le decumanus de l'ancien camp romain (surtout à Paris). Les autres principaux héritages de la civilisation romaine sont l’Église catholique et la langue française.
Clovis, décédé en 511, est considéré comme le premier roi de France, bien que son royaume franque ne soit pas beaucoup plus étendu que le territoire de l'actuel Ile de France, autour de Paris. Cependant, son baptême au christianisme (trinitaire) – par opposition à l'arianisme alors en vogue auprès des chefs germaniques – se révélerait important pour la suite de l'histoire de l'Europe. Charlemagne, couronné empereur du nouvel empire romain d'Occident en 800, en fut le premier souverain fort. Sous son règne, il réunit des territoires comprenant la France ainsi que des régions de la Belgique, de l'Allemagne et de l'Italie modernes. Sa résidence principale était Aix-la-Chapelle (aujourd'hui en Allemagne, connue sous le nom de Aix-la-Chapelle). Comme il était presque constamment sur la route et "au pouvoir", plusieurs endroits peuvent être considérés comme sa "capitale" ou sa "résidence".
Pendant cette période, la France était attaquée par les Vikings venus du nord et naviguant dans les rivières en amont pour piller les villes et les abbayes. Il était également attaqué du sud par les musulmans sarrasins qui s'étaient établis en Espagne. Les Vikings ont reçu une partie du territoire (la Normandie d'aujourd'hui) en 911 et ont rapidement imposé le système de servage féodal aux paysans indigènes. Les Sarrazins sont arrêtés en 732 à Poitiers par Charles Martel, grand-père de Charlemagne et guerrier plutôt brutal, qui sera par la suite célébré comme un héros national.
En commençant par Charlemagne, une nouvelle société a été créée, basée sur le système de féodalisme. Bien que généralement considéré comme une ère de stagnation, il peut être plus justement décrit comme une période de développements économiques et culturels (la musique et les poèmes des troubadours et des trouvères, la construction des cathédrales romanes puis gothiques) étant suivie d'une récession en raison de pandémie et guerres.
En 987, Hughes Capet fut couronné roi de France. il est la racine des familles royales qui gouverneront plus tard la France. En fait, lorsque Louis XVI fut forcé de prendre un nom commun par les révolutionnaires français, "Louis Capet" fut choisi en référence à Hughes. En 1154, une grande partie de l'ouest de la France passa sous la domination anglaise lors du mariage d'Eleanor d'Aquitaine avec le roi d'Angleterre Henri II (comte d'Anjou, né dans la ville du Mans). Certains rois de la dynastie Plantagenêt sont toujours enterrés en France, le plus célèbre étant Richard I 'Coeur de Lion', de la renommée de Walter Scott, et son père Henri II, qui réside à l'Abbaye de Fontevraud. La lutte entre les rois anglais et français entre 1337 et 1435 est connue sous le nom de guerre de cent ans et son personnage le plus célèbre est Jeanne d'Arc (Jeanne d'Arc), désormais considérée comme une héroïne nationale française.
Avant de partir, vous voudrez peut-être lire le français ou l'ennemi de Polly Platt ou presque français de Sarah Turnbull – des documents intéressants et bien écrits de personnes d'expression anglaise vivant en France. Pour le lecteur adulte intéressé par la réputation de Paris pour la romance et la sensualité, essayez SENSUAL PARIS: Sexe, séduction et romance dans la sublime ville de la lumière par Jonathan LeBlanc Roberts
Début des temps modernes
Le début du XVIe siècle voit la fin du système féodal et l'émergence de la France en tant qu'État «moderne» dont les frontières sont relativement proches des frontières actuelles (bien que l'Alsace, la Corse, la Savoie et la encore français). Le "Roi Soleil" Louis XIV, roi de 1643 à 1715 (72 ans), était probablement le monarque le plus puissant de son époque. L'influence française s'étendit profondément dans le reste de l'Europe, allant même jusqu'à la Russie; sa langue a été utilisée dans de nombreuses cours européennes, devenant la langue internationale de la diplomatie, et sa culture a été exportée sur tout le continent.
Cette époque et le siècle suivant ont également vu l'expansion de l'influence mondiale de la France. Cette expansion coloniale a déclenché toute une série de guerres avec d'autres empires coloniaux, principalement l'Angleterre (devenue Grande-Bretagne) et l'Espagne pour le contrôle des Amériques et de l'Inde. Pendant ce temps, l'ingénieur militaire en chef Vauban supervisait la construction de fortifications autour des frontières françaises, et 12 de ces fortifications de Vauban ont été classées au patrimoine mondial de l'UNESCO. La France a finalement perdu sur les deux fronts (la défaite finale des guerres napoléoniennes), mais l'influence française est encore très visible en Louisiane et au Québec (où le droit des États et des provinces est toujours fondé sur le droit civil français et non sur la common law anglaise).
Âge des révolutions
Voir aussi: Guerres Napoléoniennes, Empire Colonial Français
La tombe de Napoléon au Dôme des Invalides, Paris
La Révolution française a commencé en 1789. Le roi Louis XVI et son épouse Marie-Antoinette ont été arrêtés puis exécutés par une guillotine. La première République française a été créée à la place de la monarchie, vieille de près de 1000 ans. Bien que ce fût une période sanglante, ce fut et reste une inspiration pour de nombreuses autres luttes de libération à travers le monde. Au cours de la révolution, la France a également signé la première "déclaration des droits de l'homme", avec seulement quelques mois d'avance sur son homologue américain. À ce jour, de nombreuses constitutions incluent une déclaration de droits qui porte l'influence de ce document.
Napoléon Bonaparte prend le pouvoir par un coup d'État et finit par rétablir la France dans un système monarchique en se faisant couronner empereur en 1804, mais son ambition militariste qui fait de lui le souverain de la plupart des pays d'Europe occidentale est sa chute. Sa défaite aux mains de la marine britannique lors de la bataille de Trafalgar en 1805 signifie qu'il ne parvint jamais à éclipser les Britanniques en tant que puissance navale dominante du monde. En 1815, Napoléon fut battu lors de la bataille de Waterloo (Belgique) par une alliance des forces britanniques et prussiennes. Il fut capturé et exilé d'Europe. Il est toujours vénéré dans certains pays d’Europe orientale car son armée et son gouvernement ont amené avec eux les idées de philosophes français. Son héritage le plus important a peut-être été l’introduction de la laïcité (également connue sous le nom de "séparation de l’Église et de l’État"), qui continue d’être un principe fondamental de la gouvernance dans la plupart des pays européens.
La France est revenue à la monarchie (une restauration bourbonienne, puis un royaume libéral sous Louis Phillipe commençant par une révolution de 1830) jusqu'à ce qu'une nouvelle révolution en 1848 permette à un neveu de Napoléon d'être élu président et de devenir empereur sous le nom de Napoléon III. La fin du XIXe siècle voit l'industrialisation du pays et le développement des chemins de fer, mais aussi le début des guerres acharnées avec la Prusse et plus tard l'Allemagne.
La guerre de 1870, qui a éclaté à la suite d'un désaccord mineur concernant le trône espagnol vacant (un prince de Hohenzollern avait été suggéré comme héritier et le gouvernement français a demandé au gouvernement prussien de rejeter fermement en son nom), s'est avérée désastreuse pour les Français. Une armée mal préparée a été prise au dépourvu lorsque non seulement la Prusse, mais aussi les États du Sud de l'Allemagne, comme la Bavière, se sont mobilisés, alors que personne n'a secouru la France. Pour ajouter l'insulte aux blessures, Napoléon III fut capturé lors d'une bataille précoce près de Sedan et une Troisième République fut déclarée. Non contents de cela, les Prussiens poursuivirent leur chemin, assiégeant Paris (obligeant ses habitants à manger des animaux du zoo) et écrasant la courte commune de Paris. Quand un traité de paix a finalement été signé, la France a dû renoncer à l'Alsace et à la Lorraine, composées d'une population de langue allemande, mais surtout de riches gisements de minerai de fer. En plus de cela, la France a été contrainte de payer cinq milliards de francs en or, une somme si énorme qu'il en restait quelque chose lorsque la France a battu l'Allemagne quarante ans plus tard, au cours de la Première Guerre mondiale.
Alors que la Troisième République était considérée à l’époque comme une solution temporaire, elle disposait d’une majorité monarchiste à l’Assemblée nationale, se disputant entre diverses factions monarchistes et le refus de leur "candidat de compromis" d’accepter le drapeau Tricolore comme condition préalable à sa défense. Ce couronnement a permis à la République de survivre à sa phase initiale tumultueuse. La République a également survécu à l'affaire Dreyfus, dans laquelle un colonel juif avait été faussement reconnu coupable de trahison devant une cour martiale. La réprimande brûlante d'Émile Zola (J'accuse) et la controverse qui s'ensuivit ébranlèrent la France sur son noyau culturel et politique. Après la Première Guerre mondiale, comme ailleurs en Europe, des forces antidémocratiques se sont développées dans l'entre-deux-guerres, ce qui a nécessité un gouvernement de "front populaire" dirigé par Léon Blum, comprenant à la fois des partis centristes et des communistes. La Troisième République ne s'est effondrée qu'après la défaite militaire de la France au début de la Seconde Guerre mondiale et reste le régime le plus longtemps vécu par la France depuis la destitution de Louis XVI en 1792. La Ve République actuelle n'a pu dépasser la Troisième République de façon durable. jusqu'en 2028 ou plus.
20ème et 21ème siècles
L'année 1905 voit la séparation de l'Église et de l'État, dans le cadre d'une initiative connue sous le nom de «laïcité» en réponse à l'affaire Dreyfus. Ce fut un processus traumatisant, en particulier dans les zones rurales. Depuis lors, la France n'a pas de religion établie. En vertu de la politique «ne demandez pas, ne dites pas», la loi interdit aux étudiants et fonctionnaires français d'afficher tout signe montrant explicitement leur religion. Cette politique s'applique au port de croix chrétiennes et de kippahs juives et a récemment été appliquée au hijab musulman. Au début du XXIe siècle, les statistiques relatives à la religion et à la croyance en Dieu étaient parmi les plus basses d'Europe. Et bien que la religion ne joue aucun rôle dans la politique, le laicisme et ce que l'on entend exactement par elle le sont.
Monument aux morts des deux guerres mondiales, Annemasse
La Première Guerre mondiale (1914-1918) a été une période traumatisante de l'histoire de la France. Malgré la victoire remportée par la France et ses alliés, près de 1,7 million de Français ont été tués et de nombreuses villes et villages et de vastes étendues de campagne ont été détruites. La tristement célèbre guerre de tranchées s’est déroulée dans la moitié est de la France. La France a failli être battue deux fois dans la guerre et n'a été convaincue que par l'arrêt "miraculeux" de l'avancée allemande de 1914 et par le maréchal Pétain rassemblant les troupes pour la bataille de Verdun en 1916. Après la guerre, la France prit le contrôle de les régions autrefois allemandes de l'Alsace et de la Lorraine, ainsi que plusieurs des colonies allemandes d'outre-mer, devinrent une force majeure en Europe au cours de la prochaine décennie.
La Seconde Guerre mondiale (1939-1945) a vu la France occupée pendant une grande partie de la guerre par l'Allemagne nazie. Le nord de la France étant sous contrôle direct allemand et le sud dirigé par un gouvernement fantoche (connu sous le régime de Vichy), de nombreuses mesures totalitaires ont été introduites, notamment la déportation forcée de Juifs vers des camps de concentration (voir Mémoire de l'Holocauste). Bien que le régime de Vichy dirigé par le maréchal Pétain soit officiellement collaborationniste avec les nazis, de nombreux citoyens français ordinaires se sont engagés dans une résistance active et passive au régime. En 1944, après les débarquements alliés (comprenant des soldats français exilés et ceux des colonies impériales françaises) en Normandie et sur la côte méditerranéenne, la France fut libérée du contrôle allemand.
Après la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, la France a connu une période de reconstruction et une nouvelle prospérité a été réalisée avec le développement de l'industrie. Elle est depuis devenue la deuxième économie de l'Europe après l'Allemagne. La France et l'Allemagne ont été parmi les premiers membres des traités à devenir finalement l'Union européenne. Au cours de la période d'après-guerre, la France a connu de douloureux processus de décolonialisation en Indochine (voir Guerres d'Indochine) et en Algérie et a libéré la quasi-totalité de ses autres possessions dans l'indépendance. Alors que la France devait faire face au fait que leur statut de grande puissance était une chose du passé, des progrès technologiques ont été réalisés, qui étaient au moins partiellement destinés à montrer au monde que la France était toujours grande. Que ce soit le TGV, le programme spatial français ou le programme nucléaire français. D'autre part, les relations franco-britanniques, qui étaient difficiles, même dans le passé, se sont améliorées, notamment grâce à des projets tels que le tunnel sous la Manche ou le projet conjoint Concorde. L'une des conséquences les plus visibles de l'adhésion de la France à l'Union européenne a été l'introduction de l'euro (€) en 2002. Il s'agit désormais de la monnaie commune de seize pays européens, qui constituent ensemble la "zone euro".
Aujourd'hui, la France est une république avec un président élu pour un mandat de 5 ans. La constitution actuelle de la soi-disant cinquième République a été écrite après l'effondrement de la quatrième République d'après-guerre, principalement selon les souhaits de Charles de Gaulle. Le président de la République en exercice est Emmanuel Macron. Les problèmes actuels auxquels le pays est confronté comprennent la poursuite de l'intégration de la France dans l'Union européenne et l'adoption de normes communes pour l'économie, la défense et d'autres domaines.
L'électricité est fournie entre 220 et 230 V 50 Hz. Les prises sont CEE7 / 5 (broche de terre mâle saillante) et acceptent les fiches CEE 7/5 (mise à la terre), CEE 7/7 (mise à la terre) ou CEE 7/16 (non mise à la terre). Les anciennes fiches CEE 7/4 de type allemand ne sont pas compatibles car elles ne sont pas compatibles avec la broche de terre que l'on trouve sur ce type de prise. Cependant, la plupart des appareils européens modernes sont équipés de la fiche hybride CEE 7/7 qui convient aux prises CEE 7/5 (Belgique et France) et CEE 7/4 (Allemagne, Pays-Bas, Espagne, Suède et dans la plupart des pays d'Europe).
Fiches Les voyageurs du Royaume-Uni, d'Irlande, d'Australie, de Nouvelle-Zélande, du Danemark, d'Italie, de Suisse et d'autres pays utilisant 230 V 50 Hz, utilisant des fiches différentes, ont simplement besoin d'un adaptateur pour pouvoir utiliser leurs appareils en France. Les adaptateurs de prise pour les prises des États-Unis et du Royaume-Uni sont disponibles dans les magasins d’électricité et de bricolage tels que Bricorama.
Tension: Les voyageurs des États-Unis, du Canada, du Japon et d'autres pays qui utilisent 110 V à 60 Hz peuvent avoir besoin d'un convertisseur de tension. Cependant, certains ordinateurs portables, chargeurs de téléphones portables et autres appareils peuvent accepter des tensions de 110 V ou de 230 V; ils nécessitent donc uniquement un simple adaptateur de fiche. Vérifiez les plaques signalétiques de vos appareils avant de les brancher.
Validité minimale des documents de voyage
Les citoyens de l'Union européenne, des pays de l'EEE et de la Suisse, ainsi que les ressortissants de pays tiers exemptés de l'obligation de visa (par exemple, les Néo-Zélandais et les Australiens) doivent uniquement présenter un passeport valable pour la totalité de leur séjour en France.
Les autres ressortissants qui sont obligés d'avoir un visa (par exemple les Sud-Africains) doivent cependant avoir un passeport valide au moins 3 mois au-delà de leur séjour en France pour qu'un visa Schengen soit accordé.
La maison du peintre impressionniste français Claude Monet à Giverny, en Normandie, dans le nord de la France
La France est membre de l'accord de Schengen.
Il n’existe normalement pas de contrôle aux frontières entre les pays qui ont signé et mis en œuvre le traité. Cela inclut la plupart des pays de l'Union européenne et quelques autres pays.
Des contrôles d'identité sont généralement effectués avant d'embarquer sur des vols internationaux ou des bateaux. Parfois, il existe des contrôles temporaires aux frontières terrestres.
De même, un visa accordé à un membre de Schengen est valable dans tous les autres pays ayant signé et mis en œuvre le traité.
Veuillez consulter la section Voyager dans l'espace Schengen pour plus d'informations sur le fonctionnement de ce système, sur les pays membres et sur les exigences applicables à votre nationalité.
Citoyens d'Albanie, Andorre, Antigua-et-Barbuda, d'Argentine, des Bahamas, de Barbade, de Bosnie-Herzégovine, du Brunei, du Canada, du Chili, du Costa Rica, de Croatie, d'El Salvador, du Guatemala, du Saint-Siège, du Honduras, d'Israël, de Maurice, de Monaco, du Monténégro, Nouveau Seeland, Nicaragua, Macédoine du Nord, Panama, Paraguay, Saint-Marin, Saint-Kitts-et-Nevis, Seychelles, Taiwan et Uruguay, ainsi que les ressortissants britanniques (d'outre-mer), sont autorisés à travailler en France sans devoir obtenir un visa ni aucune autre autorisation pour la période de 90 jours sans visa. Tous les autres ressortissants exemptés de l'obligation de visa sont dispensés de l'obligation d'obtenir un visa pour un emploi de courte durée s'ils possèdent un permis de travail valide, à quelques exceptions près. Toutefois, cette capacité à travailler sans visa ne s’étend pas nécessairement aux autres pays Schengen. Pour plus d'informations, visitez cette page du ministère des Affaires étrangères français.
Les ressortissants étrangers qui ne sont pas dispensés de l'obligation de visa (les Sud-Africains par exemple) doivent faire une "déclaration d'entrée" auprès d'un poste de police ou du personnel d'inspection aux frontières s'ils arrivent en France directement d'un autre pays de l'espace Schengen ( Italie, par exemple), à moins de posséder un visa de longue durée ou un titre de séjour délivré par un État membre de Schengen. Their passports will be endorsed by the authorities to prove that such a declaration has been made. This government webpage (in French) provides more information.
If you intend to stay in France for longer than 90 days, regardless of purpose, an advance long-stay visa is always required of non-EEA or non-Swiss citizens. It is almost impossible to switch from a "C" (visitor) entry status to a "D" (long-stay) status from inside France.
As of 2009, certain categories of long-stay visa, such as "visitor" (visiteur), family (vie privée et familiale), "student" (étudiant), "salaried worker" (salarié), and "short-term worker" (travailleur temporaire), do not require persons to obtain a separate residence permit (carte de séjour) for the first year of the stay in France. However, the long-stay visa must be validated by the OFII within three months of entering France. This is done by sending in a form to the OFII received along with the visa with the address of residence in France, completing a medical examination, and attending an introductory meeting to validate the visa. As of 2013, the tax paid to OFII must now be paid at the consulate where the visa is obtained. The validated visa will serve as a residence permit and, likewise, allow travel throughout the other Schengen countries for up to 90 days in a 6 month period. After the first year, however, and for many other visa categories which state carte de séjour à solliciter dès l'arrivée, a carte de séjour is required. Consult the OFII for more information.
French overseas departments and territories are not part of the Schengen Area and operate a separate immigration regime to metropolitan France.
Flights to/from Paris
The main international airport, Roissy – Charles de Gaulle (CDG IATA), is likely to be your port of entry if you fly into France from outside Europe. CDG is the main intercontinental hub for national airline Air France. AF and the companies forming the SkyTeam Alliance (KLM, Aeroméxico, Alitalia, Delta Air Lines, Korean Air, Saudia) use Terminal 2, as do Oneworld airlines, while most Star Alliance airlines use Terminal 1. A third terminal is used mainly for charter and some low-costs flights. If transferring through CDG (especially between the various terminals) it is important to leave substantial time between flights. Ensure you have no less than one hour between transfers. Add more if you have to change terminals as you will need to clear through security. For transfers within CDG you can use the free train shuttle linking all terminals, train stations, parking lots and hotels in the airport.
Transfers to another flight in France: AF operates domestic flights from CDG too, but a lot of domestic flights, and also some internal European flights, use Orly (ORY IATA), the second Paris airport. For transfers to Orly there is a bus link operated by AF (free for AF passengers). The two airports are also linked by a local train (RER) which is slightly less expensive, runs faster but is much more cumbersome to use with heavy luggage.
AF, Corsair, Emirates, Qatar Airways have agreements with SNCF, the national rail company, which operates TGVs services, serving CDG airport (some trains even carry flight numbers). The TGV station is in Terminal 2 and is on the route of the free shuttle. For transfers to the city centre of Paris, see Paris.
Some low-cost airlines, including Ryanair and Volare, fly to Beauvais airport situated about 80 km (50 mi) northwest of Paris. Buses to Paris are provided by the airlines. Check schedules and fares on their websites.
Flights to/from regional airports
Many airports outside Paris have flights to/from international destinations: among the most served are Bordeaux, Clermont-Ferrand, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Nantes, Nice, Toulouse, they have flights to cities in western Europe and North Africa; these airports are hubs to smaller airports in France and may be useful to avoid the transfer between the two Paris airports. Two airports, Basel-Mulhouse and Geneva, are shared by France and Switzerland and can allow entry into either country.
Regional airports in France are also served long-haul from these cities:
Antananarivo (Madagascar) : Marseille (XL Airways France)
Dubai (UAE) : Lyon (Emirates), Nice (Emirates)
Montréal (Canada) : Bordeaux (Air Transat), Marseille (Air Transat), Lyon (Air Canada, Air Transat), Nantes (Air Transat), Nice (Air Canada Rouge, Air Transat), Toulouse (Air Transat)
New York City (USA) : Nice (Delta Air Lines)
Punta Cana (Dominican Republic) : Bordeaux (XL Airways France), Lyon (XL Airways France), Marseille (XL Airways France), Nantes (XL Airways France), Toulouse (XL Airways France)
Toronto (Canada) : Marseille (Air Transat)
The coast at Quiberon, Brittany
France is served by numerous services from England to France:
Prices vary considerably depending on which route you choose. Generally the cheapest route is the short sea route across the English Channel which is Dover to Calais, so it is worth comparing prices before you decide which is the most suitable route to France.
Passengers travelling from Dover by ferry to France go through French passport/identity card checks in the UK before boarding, rather than on arrival in France. Passengers travelling from all other UK ports to France go through French passport/identity card checks on arrival in France.
There are also connections from Ireland to France:
Numerous companies now act as agents for the various ferry companies much like Expedia and Travelocity act as agents for airlines allowing the comparison of various companies and routes. Two well known brands are Ferryonline and AFerry.co.uk.
See also: Rail travel in France
The French rail company, SNCF, as well as many other companies (sometimes in cooperation with SNCF), provide direct service from most European countries using regular as well as high speed trains.
TGVs between Paris, Metz and Luxembourg, as well as TGV between Brussels and France (except Paris) are operated by SNCF
TGVs between Paris, Lille, Calais and Ebbsfleet, Ashford and London in the UK, through the Channel Tunnel (also called Chunnel by some), are operated by Eurostar
TGVs between Paris, Lille, Belgium, Netherlands and northwest Germany (Cologne, Essen) are operated by Thalys
High speed trains between France and South Germany (Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Munich) are operated by Alleo, with either a SNCF TGV or a Deutsche Bahn ICE, and bilingual crew from both countries.
TGVs between France and Switzerland are operated by Lyria
TGVs between France and Italy are operated by TGV France Italie
TGVs between France and Barcelona/Madrid are operated by Elipsos, with either a SNCF TGV or a RENFE AVE, and bilingual crew.
Night trains between Paris, Dijon and Italy are operated by Thello
Day trains between Marseille and Milan (via Nice) are operated by Thello as well
Night trains between Moscow and Paris operated by the russian RZD run weekly, they stop en-route in Belarus (Minsk), Poland (Warsaw, Poznan) and Germany (Berlin, Erfurt)
Night trains between Moscow and Nice operated by the Russian company RZD run weekly, they stop en-route in Belarus (Minsk), Poland (Warsaw, Katowice), Austria (Vienna, Linz, Innsbruck) and Italy
Upon reservation, you can take your bike with you in night trains and single-deck TGV's.
See also: Intercity buses in France, Intercity buses in Germany
Several companies operate between France and the rest of Europe:
Several weekends throughout the year in France are known as 'Black Saturday' (Samedi noir) because of the start or end of school holidays and the coinciding traffic jams on French roads caused by thousands of tourists travelling to and from their holiday destinations. When possible it is wise to avoid these days. For traffic reports, see the website of the French traffic service .
Ridesharing, or carpooling, is very popular in France. Websites such as BlaBlaCar allow drivers with empty seats to safely connect with passengers looking for a ride.
See also: Driving in France.
From the United Kingdom
In the Channel Tunnel vehicle car
The Channel Tunnel provides a rail / road connection between South East England and France. Shuttle trains operated by Eurotunnel carry vehicles from Folkestone in Kent to Calais (Hauts-de-France) in 35 minutes, though you only spend about 20 minutes in the tunnel itself. Passengers remain with their vehicles for the duration, with trips to the toilet allowed. Fares start at €23 one way and can be booked online months in advance, though it is entirely possible to 'turn up and go' without a reservation, at a cost of course! The terminal on the British side is in Cheriton, 3 miles (4.8 km) outside Folkestone, and directly accessible from junction 11a of the M20 motorway, about 70 mi (110 km) from London. Passengers undergo French passport/identity card and customs checks and British exit checks before departure. On arrival at Calais, you can drive straight on to the A16 (E402) motorway which heads towards Paris in one direction and Belgium in the other. Mainland Europe drives on the right and uses the metric system for distance and speed limit measures. In the reverse direction, you will go through British passport control in France before driving onto the train.
See the 'By boat' section above for information on car ferries to France from the United Kingdom and Ireland.
Bicycles may be taken on car ferries and on Eurotunnel shuttle trains. They may also be carried on aeroplanes, though you should consult your airline beforehand: bikes often count as "oversized luggage" and there is sometimes an extra charge to check them in. You may also be asked to partially dismantle your bicycle, but this policy will vary from carrier to carrier. Eurostar allows folding bikes on all its trains, and offers a more restricted service for other bikes, but has quite strict and specific rules that are worth reading up on before you travel.
The adventurous (and fit!) may want to try cycling between two great capitals – London and Paris. The Avenue Verte follows high quality bike trails all the way from the London Eye to Notre Dame, passing through beautiful countryside on both sides of the Channel. Highlights of the 406 km (252 mile) journey include the South Downs' rolling chalk hills, the ferry crossing between Newhaven and Dieppe, and the rich farmland of Normandy. The itinerary is fully signposted all the way, and its accompanying website gives a detailed breakdown of the route, its points of interest and practical information such as places to rest, eat and sleep the night. Count on at least four days in the saddle, depending how fit you are and how you pace yourself. As there is plenty to see and do en route, there's no rush!
The Strasbourg tram system inaugurated a cross-border link to the German town of Kehl in 2017. There is another cross-border link under construction between Basel in Switzerland and Saint Louis in France. While the German-French border imposes no problems, as both countries are EU members, going to/from Switzerland, you are leaving (or entering) the EU and thus crossing a customs border with the limits on imports that implies and there may be customs checks. However, Switzerland is in the Schengen Area so those with no goods to declare shouldn't worry.
The following carriers offer domestic flights within France:
Air France has the biggest domestic network in France
HOP!, a subsidiary of Air France, operates domestic flights with smaller aircrafts than Air France
easyJet, a low-cost airline, has the second biggest domestic network in France
Ryanair, another low-cost airlines, serves mainly secondary airports
Volotea has a network of domestic flights
Air Corsica links Corsica with mainland France
Twin Jet operates domestic flights with 19-seat Beech 1900D aircrafts
Hex'Air operates flights between Paris-Orly and Lourdes, using 19-seat Beech 1900D aircrafts
Eastern Airways operates domestic flights between Lyon and Lorient
Chalair Aviation has a limited network of domestic flights, using mainly 19-seat Beech 1900D aircrafts
Heli Securite (Cannes (Croisette Heliport), Nice (Cote D'Azur Airport))
See also: Driving in France
France has a well-developed system of highways. Most of the motorway (autoroute) network is made up of toll roads. Some have a single toll station giving you access to a section, others have entrance and exit toll stations at every junction. Upon entering a tolled section of a road, you must collect an entry ticket from a machine which records the point on the road you started at and ensures you only pay for the distance you travel. Be careful not to lose your entrance ticket or you will be charged for the longest possible distance. All toll stations accept major credit cards although they may not accept foreign credit cards. It is also possible to use the automatic booth, but only if your card is equipped with a special chip.
Roads range from the narrow single-carriageway lanes found in the countryside to major highways. Most towns and cities were built before the general availability of the automobile and thus city centres tend to be unwieldy for cars. Keep this in mind when renting: large cars can be very unwieldy. It often makes sense to just park and then use public transportation.
A French driver flashing headlights is asserting right of way and warning you of intentions and presence. Do not use it to mean thanks. Flashing headlights can also mean, "Watch out as there's a police speed-check ahead of you!" Horns should be used only in legitimate emergencies; use of the horn in urban areas outside such circumstances might win you a traffic ticket. Parisian drivers were notorious for honking their horns at anything and everything, though increased enforcement has greatly reduced this practice.
Don't forget that in France they drive on the right!
Renting a car
Once you arrive in France you may need to use car hire services. Most of the leading companies operate from French airports and it is advisable to book car hire in advance. It is a common experience at smaller French airports to not get the type of car you booked online but an alternative model. Sometimes the alternative model is quite different so check carefully before accepting the vehicle and stand your ground if it does not match your booking request and is not suitable to your needs.
Most cars in France are equipped with standard transmissions, a fact that derives equally from the preferences of the driving public and the peculiarities of French licensing laws (automatic transmissions are generally only used by the elderly or those with physical disabilities). This extends to vehicle categories that in other countries (read: the US) are virtually never equipped with a manual transmission, such as vans and large sedans. Accordingly, virtually all of the vehicles available for rent at the average car hire will be equipped with a manual gearbox. If you do not know how to drive a car with a manual transmission and don't have the time to learn before your trip, be certain to reserve your rental car well in advance and confirm your reservation. Otherwise, you may find yourself in a car that is much larger than you can afford (or with no car at all).
It is a good tip when travelling in numbers to get one member of the party with hand luggage to go straight through to the car hire desk ahead of everybody else, this will avoid the crush once the main luggage is picked up from the conveyor.
France is a good country for hitchhiking. Be patient, prepare yourself for a long wait or walk and in the meantime enjoy the landscape. A ride will come along. People who stop are usually friendly and not dangerous. They will like you more if you speak a little French. They never expect any money for the ride.
Remember that getting out of Paris by thumb is almost impossible. You can try your luck at the portes (city gates), but heavy traffic and limited areas for stopping will try your patience. It's a good idea to take the local train to a nearby suburb as your chance of being picked up will increase dramatically.
Outside Paris, it's advisable to try your luck by roundabouts. As it's illegal to hitchhike on the motorways (autoroutes) and they are well observed by the police, you may try at a motorway junction.
The greatest chance is at toll plazas (stations de péage), some of which require all cars to stop and are thus great places to catch a lift. If you've been waiting for a while with an indication of where to go, drop it and try with your thumb only. You can also try to get a ride to the next good spot in the wrong direction. However, while hitching from a péage is a common practice, it is illegal. French police or highway security, who are normally very tolerant of hitchhikers, may stop and force you to leave. You can get free maps in the toll offices – these also indicate where you can find the "all-stop-Péage".
By shared ride
Blablacar has a quasi-monopoly in France, but it is still a convenient, economical and efficient way to see the country. Prices for distances are below the ones of the train and buses, about €8-10 per 100 km. Between the largest cities you will find many options, some starting in the centre, others just going by the highway—checkout the exact meeting point before committing to a booking. BlaBlaCar has a rating system and the rides are very reliable.
Main article: Rail travel in France
A TGV crossing the Cize-Bolozon viaduct over the Ain river
Trains are a great way to get around in France. You can get from pretty much anywhere to anywhere else by train. For long distances, use the TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse, or High-speed train) on which reservations are obligatory. But if you have time, take the slow train and enjoy the scenery. The landscape is part of what makes France one of the top tourist destinations in the world. Like many things in France, the TGV network is focused on Paris to an almost ridiculous degree, and you may be out of luck when searching for a fast connection between secondary cities. Quite often a considerable detour via the Paris region can be faster than the direct train would be. Usually, if you need to change trains, you can do so at one of three out of town TGV stations: Massy, Marne-la-Vallée or Charles de Gaulle Airport, which are on a connection line linking the northern, eastern, south-eastern and south-western high-speed lines, but it is still sometimes necessary to change in central Paris. However, the capital has several terminus stations, which are not linked by mainline rail, so you'll likely have to use the RER or metro to transfer from one train to another.
The French national railway network is managed by SNCF Réseaux, a branch of the nationalised company SNCF (Société nationale des chemins de fer français).
For regional trains, schedules can be found at ter.sncf.com (choose your region, then "Carte and horaires" for maps and timetables). Booking is available in two classes: première classe (first class) is less crowded and more comfortable but can also be about 50% more expensive than deuxième classe (second class).
The SNCF website Gares & Connexions provides live train schedules, keeping you informed about platform numbers and delays. This information is also available on smartphones via the free application SNCF.
There are a number of different kinds of high speed and normal trains:
TER (Train Express Régional): Regional trains form the backbone of the SNCF system. TER are sometimes slower but do serve most stations. Available on Eurail and InterRail passes.
TGV (Trains à Grande Vitesse): The world-famous French high-speed trains run several times a day from Paris to the south-east Nice (5-6h), Marseille (3h) and Avignon (2.5 h), the east Geneva (3h) or Lausanne, Switzerland and Dijon (1h15), the south-west Bordeaux (3h), the west Rennes (2h), Nantes (2h), Brest (4h) and the north Lille (1h). Eurostar to London (2h15) and Thalys to Brussels (1h20) use almost identical trains. Reservations are compulsory.
Night train services (Intercités de Nuit) include couchettes second class (6 bunk beds in a compartment), first class (4 bunks) and reclining seats. You can ask for a "private room" (in first class). Night trains have been gradually phased out, and there were only a handful of them still in service in 2015.
Booking tickets online can be quite a confusing process: SNCF does not sell tickets online by itself, and it is possible to book the same journey through a number of different travel agencies websites (in different languages and currencies). The fares for journeys inside France are the same with every travel agency.
Voyages-sncf.com French language booking website by Expedia and the SNCF. It can get sometimes confusing, and is known to hardly work when you try to buy a ticket from abroad or with a non-French credit card. Be careful: you will need the credit card that has been used for payment to retrieve your tickets from the ticket machines. If you don't have it, your tickets will be lost, and you will need to buy new tickets.
Trainline French, English, German, Spanish and Italian language booking website. It aims to be as easy to use as possible. Unlike "Voyages SNCF", you don't need your credit card to retrieve the tickets, only the reservation number and the last name entered for reservation. You can pay with Visa, MasterCard, American Express or Paypal. Tickets can be printed or downloaded on your mobile phone or Apple watch or Android watch.
RailEurope are booking agencies owned by the SNCF. Fares will often be more expensive on these sites than on the "official" sites, but they are generally easier to use than the SNCF sites.
Beware: To avoid any form of fraud, your ticket must be punched by an automatic machine ("composteur") before entering the platform area to be valid. The machines are situated at the entrance of all platforms. However, e-Billet electronic tickets do not have to be punched: in doubt, punch it anyway, you won't be fined for punching an e-Billet.
French information booths, especially in larger train stations, can be quite unhelpful, especially if you do not understand much French. If something does not seem to make sense, just say "excusez-moi" and they should repeat it.
It is cheaper to book and purchase train tickets, especially those with reservations, in advance.
See also: Intercity buses in France
There is no single national bus service. Buses used to be limited to local mass transit or departmental/regional service. However, a market liberalization (similar to that in Germany) has meant that long distance buses are now allowed to run everywhere in France and prices can be quite low, especially when booked in advance. However, journey time and comfort tend to be worse than on the train.
The tourist information will often recommend the train before the bus, even though there are often many options to choose from. Be insistent when asking for the bus there, and they will hand you a local long distance bus time table.
On local/city buses always validate your ticket if necessary, especially the card-like tickets with magnet-band.
France is not a particularly cyclist-friendly country (unlike, say, the Netherlands), but the situation is improving: more cycle paths are being built and about 40 cities have a bike-sharing system.
Beware of bike thieves. If you have to park your bike in the street, make sure to lock it properly, particularly in larger cities and at night. Avoid using the cable-locks that can be cut within seconds, instead use U-shaped locks, chains or folding locks. Lock your bike to a solid fixed support like a U-Rack. Lock the frame (not only the wheels) and make sure that your wheels cannot be removed without a more-determined thief with tools.
See also: French phrasebook
French (français) is the official language of France as well as a number of its neighbours, is a working language of the UN and the Olympics, and is the official language of around 270 million people in the world. French people are very proud of their language, and any tourist who doesn't put even a bit of effort into speaking it is missing out on an important part of the country's identity and culture, and what many consider to be the most beautiful language in the world.
There are slight variations in the pronunciation of informal everyday speech compared to how you may have learnt French at school. For example, in standard French the word for yes is oui ("we"), but you will often hear the slang form ouais ("waay"). This is the equivalent of the English language usage of "yeah" instead of "yes". The Loire Valley has the reputation of being the region where the best French is spoken.
Other languages used in France
In Alsace and part of Lorraine, a dialect of German called Alsatian is spoken, which is almost incomprehensible to speakers of standard High German. In the west of Brittany, some people speak Breton; this Celtic language is a relative of Welsh. In the south, some still speak dialects of Occitan (also called the langue d'Oc because the word for "yes" is òc): Auvergnat, Gascon, Languedocian, Limousin, and Provençal. Occitan is a Romance language, and a very close relative of Catalan and neighbouring Italian dialects. In parts of Aquitaine, Basque is spoken, but not as much as on the Spanish side of the border. In Corsica, the Corsican language has a strong Italian influence.
Without exception, all of these languages are in decline and in many places only spoken by the elderly and academics. More common, but still in decline to an extent, are regional dialects of French, often referred to locally as patois. If you have an ear for accents, you will also hear variations in pronunciation of standard French as you travel around the country.
All this being said, everyone in France speaks standard French and tourists are unlikely to ever need to speak anything else, though you may wish to learn one or two basic phrases or greetings, to show you recognise the region's heritage.
Hardly anybody understands imperial units such as gallons or Fahrenheit. Stick to metric units; after all, the French invented this system.
The French are generally attached to politeness (some might say excessively) and will react coolly to strangers who forget it. You might be surprised to see that you are greeted by other customers when you walk into a restaurant or shop. Return the courtesy and address your hellos/goodbyes to everyone when you enter or leave small shops and cafes. It is, for the French, very impolite to start a conversation with a stranger (even a shopkeeper or client) without at least a bonjour (in the day) or bonsoir (at night). For this reason, starting the conversation with at least a few basic French phrases goes a long way to convince them to try to help you.
Excusez-moi Monsieur/Madame: Excuse me, sir / madam (ehk-SKEW-zay MWAH mong-SYUH/ma-DAHM)
S'il vous plaît Monsieur/Madame: Please (seel voo PLEH)
Merci Monsieur/Madame: Thank you (merr-SEE)
Au revoir Monsieur/Madame: Goodbye (oh ruh-VWAHR)
Avoid Salut ("Hi"); it is reserved for friends and relatives, and to use it with people you are not acquainted with is considered a bit impolite.
French spoken with a hard accent can be very difficult for the average French person to understand. In such circumstances, it may be best to write down what you are trying to say. But tales of waiters refusing to serve tourists because their pronunciation doesn't meet French standards are highly exaggerated. A good-faith effort will usually be appreciated, but don't be offended if a waiter responds to your fractured French, or even fluent but accented, in English. If you are a fluent French speaker and the waiter speaks to you in English when you'd prefer to speak French, continue to respond in French and the waiter will usually switch back — this is a common occurrence in the more tourist-oriented areas, especially in Paris.
Some parts of France (such as Paris) are at times overrun by tourists. The locals there may have some blasé feelings about helping foreign tourists who speak in an unintelligible language and ask for directions to the other side of the city for the umpteenth time. Be courteous and understanding.
As France is a very multicultural society with immigrants from all over the world, many African languages, Arabic, Chinese dialects (such as Teochew), Vietnamese or Khmer are spoken. Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Romanian belong to the same language family as French, and therefore it may be possible to communicate basic information through some common vocabulary, particularly when written down.
Although most French people, including virtually everyone born since the 1990s, have studied English in school, proficiency has historically been poor, with only a very small minority being conversant in it. With that said, things have started to change since the late 2000s. You can now expect major hotels and tourist attractions to always have staff who speak English and other foreign languages (German and Spanish being the most common). Furthermore, younger generations of French people are beginning to have a better grasp of English, and some can hold actually decent conversations. Some French people – usually those from wealthier backgrounds – are starting to speak with a new type of French accent: one peppered with British intonations.
When approaching French people, always be sure to begin the conversation in French, as assuming that a foreign language will be spoken is considered to be very rude. French people are well aware that many visitors' level of French is not very good, but they generally react well to even clumsy, but sincere, attempts to speak their language, and will feel much more inclined to respond using whatever English they know if they judge you to have made an effort.
The standard sign language is French Sign Language, locally known by its native initialism LSF (langue des signes française). Whenever an interpreter is present for a public event, he or she will use LSF. Users of American Sign Language (also used in Anglophone Canada), Quebec Sign Language, and Irish Sign Language may be able to understand LSF; as those languages were derived from LSF, they share a good deal of vocabulary and syntax with LSF, and also use a one-handed manual alphabet very similar to that of LSF. Users of British Sign Language, Auslan, or New Zealand Sign Language, however, will have great difficulty. Those languages differ markedly in vocabulary and syntax from LSF, and also use a two-handed manual alphabet.
The cathedral at Reims, Champagne-Ardenne, Northeastern France
Thinking of France, you might imagine the iconic Eiffel Tower, the Arc de Triomphe or the famous smile of Mona Lisa. You might think of drinking coffee in the lively Paris cafés where great intellectuals lingered in past times, or of eating croissants in a local bistro of a sleepy but gorgeous village in the countryside. Probably, images of splendid châteaux will spring to your mind, of lavender fields or perhaps of vineyards as far as the eye can see. Or perhaps, you'd envisage the chic resorts of the Cote d'Azur. And you wouldn't be wrong. However, they are only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to France's many sights and attractions.
Paris. the "City of Light" and the capital of romance has been a travellers' magnet for centuries and a real must-see. Of course, no visit would be complete without a glance at its world famous landmarks. The Eiffel Tower is hard to miss, especially when it is lit beautifully at night, but the Arc de Triomphe, Notre Dame and Sacré Coeur are all famous and stunning sights too. With no less than 3,800 national monuments in and around Paris, history is literally around every corner. Stroll through the city's spacious green parks, with the Luxembourg Gardens as one of the favourites, and make sure to spend some time on the famous banks of the River Seine. Also, don't miss the magnificent Palace of Versailles, the grandest reminder of the Ancien Régime 20 km away from the capital.
Bordeaux is famous for its wine but is also a bustling city with lots of historic sights to discover. It is listed as a World Heritage Site for being "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble". Lyon, the country's second largest city, is listed too, and boasts a beautiful old centre as well as a number of Roman ruins. Strasbourg, one of the EU headquarters, has a character of its own, with clear German influences. Montpellier is one of the best places in the south, with lots of monumental buildings and nice cafés. In the west there's the beautiful historic city of Nantes, home to the Château des ducs de Bretagne and many other monuments. The Capitole de Toulouse is situated right at the heart that famous university city's street plan. Last but not least, don't overlook Arles, with its World Heritage Listed Roman and Romanesque Monuments.
Provence and French Riviera
There are the magnificent cities of the Côte d'Azur, once the place to be for the rich and famous but now equally popular with a mixed crowd. Its sandy beaches, beautiful bays, rocky cliffs and lovely towns has made it one of the world's premier yachting and cruising areas as well as popular destination for land-bound travellers. There's bustling Nice, where some 4 million tourists a year enjoy the stony beaches and stroll down the Promenade des Anglais. Although Saint-Tropez gets overcrowded in summer, it's a delightful place in any other season. The same goes for Cannes, where the jet-set of the film industry gathers each year for the famous Cannes Film Festival. From there, you can hop on a boat to the much more peaceful Îles de Lérins.
Much smaller but just as gorgeous (and popular) are the perched villages of Gourdon and Èze, which is on a 427-meter-high cliff, much like an “eagle's nest”. Both offer some stunning panoramic views. From Èze, its a very short trip to the glitter and glamour of Monaco. For the world's millionaires and aristocracy, the green peninsula of Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat is an old time favourite with the impressive Villa Ephrussi de Rothschild full of impressionist art as its main sight. A bit more inland but well-worth a visit are the towns of Grasse, famous for its perfumeries, and Biot, known for its glass blowers.
The Provence, backing a good part of the Côte d'Azur, is one of the most beloved regions. It has a typical Mediterranean atmosphere and is famous for its lavender fields and rosé wines. It's also home to the stunning Verdon Gorge, one of the most beautiful gorges in Europe. The huge city and arts-hub Marseille has plenty of historic sights and nearby are the stunning Calanques, a series of miniature fjords it shares with Cassis. Provence also has famous Gorges du Verdon, reknowned cities like Aix-en-Provence, Arles and Nîmes have strong ancient heritage, and Avignon, with its splendid ramparts and the Palais-des-Papes, was once the seat of popes, and hosts every july the largest theatre festival in the world.
Countryside & villages
You haven't seen the best of France if you haven't had at least a taste of its amazing countryside, dotted with wonderful medieval villages and castles. There are great examples in any part of the country, but some 156 villages have been identified as the most beautiful in France, or "Les Plus Beaux Villages de France". The country's landscapes vary from the snow-covered peaks of the Alps and the Pyrenees with their many winter sports resorts to lush river valleys, dense forests and huge stretches of farmland and vineyards. The rolling riverine landscape of the Loire Valley is home to many great castles, of which Châteaux Amboise, Château de Villandry, Azay-le-Rideau, Chambord and Châteaux du Pin are some of the finest examples. The western region of Brittany reaches far into the Atlantic and boasts many megalithic monuments such as those near Carnac. The beaches of Normandy, also on the Atlantic coast, are famed for the D-Day Allied invasion on June 6, 1944. Although the humbling Normandy American Cemetery and countless museums, memorials and war time remains keep memory of those dark days alive, the region is now a pleasant and popular destination. Its picturesque coastline includes both long stretches of beach and steep limestone cliffs, such as those near Étretat). The region is also home to the splendid and World Heritage listed Mont-Saint-Michel and its Bay. The lush hills of the Dordogne form another region famous for its castles, with over 1500 of them on its 9000 km2 area.
At the Louvre you can see possibly the world's most famous painting…
As the French have a real taste for art, the country has numerous art galleries and museums. Several of them are widely considered to be among the finest museums in the world of art, art-history, and culture. The grandeur and fame of the Musée du Louvre in Paris can hardly be matched by any other museum in the world. It boasts a fabulous collection of art from antiquity to the 19th century and is home of the Mona Lisa and many other renowned works. At a 15-minute walk from there is the Musée d'Orsay, another world class museum that picks up roughly where the Louvre's collections ends. It's in an old railway station and houses the national collection of art works from the 1848 to 1914 period. Its excellent collection includes some of the best French Impressionist, post-Impressionist and Art Nouveau works, including Degas' ballerinas and Monet's water-lilies. The Musée National d'Art Moderne in Centre Pompidou, still in France's capital, is the largest museum for modern art in Europe. The Museum of Fine Arts in Lyon has an excellent collection varying from ancient Egypt antiquities to Modern art paintings and sculptures. In Lille you'll find the Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille, one of the country's largest museums. Its varied collection is the second largest after the Louvre and boasts everything from antiquities to modern art. Smaller but still outstanding are the collections of the Musée Fabre in Montpellier, Musée Toulouse-Lautrec in Albi and the Picasso Museum in Paris. Marseille has many galleries and its Musée Cantini has a good collection of modern art associated with Marseille as well as several works by Picasso. Fondation Maeght houses modern art too and is situated in Saint-Paul de Vence.
Parks & natural attractions
Disneyland Resort Paris is by far France's most popular park, visited by families from all over Europe. The country's national parks have quite some visitors too though, due to their splendid scenery and great opportunities for outdoor sports. Vanoise National Park is the oldest and one of the largest parks, named after the Vanoise massif. Its highest peak is the Grande Casse at 3,855 m. The impressive natural landscapes of Parc national des Pyrénées are right on the southern border of France and extend well into Spain, where they are part of the Parc National Ordesa y Monte Perdido The whole area is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site. In the French part, the glacial cirques of Gavarnie, Estaubé and Troumouse are some of the best sights, as is the wall of Barroud. The again mountainous Cévennes National Park covers parts of the Languedoc-Roussillon (including the popular Ardèche), Midi-Pyrénées and the Rhône-Alpes regions. The park's main offices are in the castle of Florac, but there are towns all over the park. Donkey rides are available and the cave formation of Aven Armand is one of the park's best sights.
Not yet under a protected status but highly popular is Mont Blanc, the highest peak in Europe and attractive for climbing, hiking and skiing. From the French side, it is mostly explored from Chamonix, a well known resort at the foot of the mountain.
Place du General de Gaulle, Lille, Nord-Pas de Calais, Northern France
Go to the top of the Eiffel Tower in Paris
Stroll grand Parisian Boulevards
Climb Montmartre Hill in Paris
See the Gothic monuments on the Île de la Cité, in particular the Sainte-Chapelle and Notre-Dame
See some of the world-famous art in the Louvre, or visit the equally stunning Musée d'Orsay, installed in a former railway terminus
See the modern architecture in the business district of La Defense
See the Science Museum in Villette Park, and the other odd attractions assembled there
Stroll an old train viaduct on the Promenade Plantée in Paris
See the stunning, but crowded, Versailles Palace
Ride the TGV, the train which holds the speed record for a conventional (wheel-on-rails) train, from Paris to Lyon, Marseille, Strasbourg or Lille.
See the "D-Day beaches" of Normandy
Climb to the top of Mont Saint Michel
Explore Chartres Cathedral
See the quaintness of the Alsace
Sunbathe on the beaches of the French Riviera
Like neighbouring Germany and Italy, France is also known for having a very strong classical music tradition. French composers who are well-known among classical music circles, and even to many members of the general public, include the likes of Lully, Rameau, Berlioz, Fauré, Gounod, Debussy, Bizet, Saint-Saëns, Ravel, Massenet, Delibes and Messiaen. Even if you have never heard of these composers, chances are that you are already familiar with their compositions to a certain extent, as some of these pieces have found their way into popular culture, and are commonly heard in advertising and film scores.
France is famous for its ballets, and most of the modern-day terms used by ballerinas originate from French. French composers have, unsurprisingly, contributed many famous ballet scores. To this day, the Paris Opera Ballet remains one of the most famous ballet companies in the world.
Similarly, French opera is also regarded as one of the greatest operatic traditions in Europe. During the Baroque period, while Italian opera took much of Europe by storm, it never gained a strong foothold in France, where the French developed their own unique operatic tradition, partly thanks to the Italian Jean-Baptiste Lully (né Giovanni Battista Lulli), who was hired by Louis XIV for that purpose. The 19th century gave rise to some new French operatic styles such as the grand opera, which combined opera and ballet into a single performance. In fact, even foreign composers such as Rossini, Verdi and Meyerbeer are famous for their contributions to the French operatic stage. Another genre of opera that developed in 19th century France was the operetta, essentially a comedic opera with light-hearted music and subject matter, which was created by the German-born composer Jacques Offenbach. For those who are interested in watching French opera, the Paris Opera remains one of the premier opera companies in the world, though there are also good opera houses in some of the smaller cities.
The final leg of the 2017 Tour de France
Without a doubt the most popular spectator team sports in France (though not necessarily in that order) are rugby union, football and (European/team/olympic) handball with both strong domestic competition and a national side that has variously won Six Nations, world cups and European championships and is usually to be reckoned with on a global level.
Cycling is another popular sport in France, with many professional races taking place across the country throughout the year. The Tour de France, cycling's most prestigious race, takes place every July over three weeks. The race features a series of 21 full day stages along roads across France and typically covers 3,500 km. Although the Tour always finishes on the Champs-Élysées in Paris, the specific route to get there changes every year. The beginning of the race is known as the Grand Départ, a carnivalesque affair which regions across France and indeed around western Europe vie to host. The Tour is free to watch at all of its stages and is very accessible. It is best viewed at stage towns and at its most thrilling sections: mass sprints at the end of a flat stage, cobbled sections and mountain climbs, where the atmosphere is greatest.
Many of the French take their vacations in August. As a result, outside of tourist areas, many of the smaller shops (butcher shops, bakeries…) will be closed during parts of August. This also applies to many corporations as well as physicians. Obviously, in touristy areas, shops will tend to be open when the tourists come, especially July and August. In contrast, many attractions will be awfully crowded during those months, and during the Easter weekend.
Some attractions, especially in rural areas, close or have reduced opening hours outside the tourist season.
Mountainous areas tend to have two tourist seasons: in the winter, for skiing, snowshoeing and other snow-related activities, and in the summer for sightseeing and hiking.
Exchange rates for Euros
As of 31 July 2019:
US€1 ≈ €0.9
UK€1 ≈ €1.09
Australian $1 ≈ €0.62
Canadian $1 ≈ €0.68
Exchange rates fluctuate. Current rates for these and other currencies are available from XE.com
France uses the euro, like several other European countries. One euro is divided into 100 cents. The official symbol for the euro is €, and its ISO code is EUR. There is no official symbol for the cent.
All banknotes and coins of this common currency are legal tender within all the countries, except that low-denomination coins (one and two cent) are phased out in some of them. The banknotes look the same across countries, while coins have a standard common design on one side and a national country-specific design on the other. The latter side is also used for different designs of commemorative coins. The design on the national side does not affect the use of the coin.
Some foreign currencies such as the U.S. dollar and the British pound are occasionally accepted, especially in tourist areas and in higher-end places, but one should not count on it; furthermore, the cashier may charge an unfavourable exchange rate. In general, shops will refuse transactions in foreign currency.
It is compulsory, for the large majority of businesses, to post prices in windows. Hotels and restaurants must have their rates visible from outside (however, many hotels offer lower prices than the posted ones if they feel they will have a hard time filling up their rooms; the posted price is only a maximum).
Almost all stores (except smaller independent stores including some tourist stores and tobacco stores), restaurants and hotels take the CB French debit card, and its foreign affiliations, Visa and MasterCard. American Express tends to be accepted only in high-end shops. Retailers will post by the till if there is a minimum spend required before using the card. Check with your bank for applicable fees (typically, banks apply the wholesale inter-bank exchange rate, which is the best available, but may slap a proportional and/or a fixed fee).
French CB cards (and CB/Visa and CB/MasterCard cards) have a "smart chip" on them allowing PIN authentication of transactions. This system, initiated in France, has now evolved to an international standard and newer British cards are compatible. Some automatic retail machines (such as those vending tickets) may be compatible only with cards with the microchip. In addition, cashiers unaccustomed to foreign cards possibly do not know that foreign Visa or MasterCard cards have to be swiped and a signature obtained, while French customers systematically use PIN and don't sign the transactions. The acceptance of contactless cards is also becoming widespread.
There is practically no way to get a cash advance from a credit card without a PIN in France.
Automatic teller machines (ATM) are by far the best way to get money in France. They all take CB, Visa, MasterCard, Cirrus and Plus and are plentiful throughout France. They may accept other kinds of card; check for the logos on the ATM and on your card (on the back, generally) if at least one matches. It is possible that some machines do not handle 6-digit PIN codes (only 4-digit ones), or that they do not offer the choice between different accounts (defaulting on the checking account). Check with your bank about applicable fees, which may vary greatly (typically, banks apply the wholesale inter-bank exchange rate, which is the best available, but may slap a proportional and/or a fixed fee; because of the fixed fee it is generally better to withdraw money in big chunks rather than €20 at a time). Also, check about applicable maximal withdrawal limits.
Traveller's cheques are difficult to use — most merchants will not accept them, and exchanging them may involve finding a bank that accepts to exchange them and possibly paying a fee.
The postal service doubles as a bank, so often post offices will have an ATM. As a result, even minor towns will have ATMs usable with foreign cards.
Exchange offices (bureaux de change) are now rarer with the advent of the Euro – they will in general only be found in towns with a significant foreign tourist presence, such as Paris. Some banks exchange money, often with high fees. The Bank of France no longer does foreign exchange.
Do Put money into your checking account, carry an ATM card with a Cirrus or Plus logo on it and a 4-digit pin that does not start with '0' and withdraw cash from ATMs. Pay larger transactions (hotel, restaurants…) with Visa or MasterCard. Always carry some euros cash for emergencies.
Don't Carry foreign currency or traveller's cheques, and exchange them on the go, or expect them to be accepted by shops.
Tips are not expected in France since service charges are included in the bill. However, French people usually leave the small change left after paying the bill or one to five euros if they were satisfied with the service quality.
In towns and city centres, you always will find smaller shops, chain grocery stores (Casino) as well as, occasionally, department stores and small shopping malls. Residential areas will often have small supermarkets (such as Carrefour Market or Intermarché). Large supermarkets (hypermarchés such as Auchan, Carrefour, E.Leclerc, Géant Casino) are mostly on the outskirts of towns and are probably not useful unless you have access to a car.
Prices are indicated with all taxes (namely, the TVA, or value-added tax) included. It is possible for non-EU residents to get a partial refund upon departure from certain stores that have a "tax-free shopping" sticker; inquire within. TVA is 20% on most things, but 10% on some things such as books, restaurant meals, and public transport and 5.5% on food purchased from grocery stores (except for sweets!). Alcoholic beverages are always taxed at 20%, regardless of where they're purchased.
See also: French cuisine
Inside L'Auberge du Pont de Collonges near Lyon, a 3-Michelin-star restaurant since 1965 and the main restaurant of the late star chef Paul Bocuse
With its international reputation for fine dining, few people would be surprised to hear that French cuisine can certainly be very good. As a testament to this, France is tied with Japan for first place as the country with the most Michelin star restaurants. Unfortunately, it can also be quite disappointing; many restaurants that cater to tourists serve very ordinary fare, and some are rip-offs. Finding the right restaurant and one where French people go to is therefore very important – try asking locals, hotel staff or even browsing restaurant guides or websites for recommendations as simply walking in off the street can be a hit and miss affair. The downside is that outside of the tourist traps, it is very rare to find a restaurant with English-speaking waiters, so be prepared to have to speak some French.
There are many places to try French food in France, from three-star Michelin restaurants to French brasseries or bistrots that you can find on almost every corner, especially in big cities. In general, one should try to eat where the locals do for the best chance of a memorable meal. Most small cities or even villages have local restaurants which are sometimes listed in the most reliable guides. In fact, many fine dining restaurants are in rural villages rather than in the big cities, and French people often drive to those villages to dine during special occasions. Even among cities, Paris is not considered by the French to have the best fine dining scene; that honour goes to Lyon. There are also specific local restaurants, like bouchons lyonnais in Lyon, crêperies in Brittany (and in the Montparnasse area of Paris), and baraques à frites in the north
Chinese, Vietnamese, Cambodian, even Thai eateries are readily available in Paris, either as regular restaurants or traiteurs (fast-food). They are not so common, and are more expensive, in smaller French cities. Many places have "Italian" restaurants though these are often little more than unimaginative pizza and pasta parlours. You will also find Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, as well as Greek and Lebanese food. The ubiquitous hamburger bars – US original or their French copies – are also available.
In France, taxes (7% of the total in restaurants) and service (usually 10%) are always included in the bill, so anything patrons add to the bill amount is an "extra-tip". There should not be any additions to the advertised price, do not hesitate to question such additions. French people usually leave one or two coins if they were happy with the service, but it's not mandatory. Bread and tap water are always free of charge, and no extra price should be applied for the dishes.
Fixed price menus seldom include beverages. If you want water, waiters will often try to sell you mineral water or fizzy water, at a premium; ask for a carafe d'eau for tap water, which is free and safe to drink. Water never comes with ice in it unless so requested, and water with ice may not be available.
As in other countries, restaurants tend to make a large profit off beverages. Expect wine to cost much more than it would in a supermarket.
Ordering is made either from fixed price menus (menu fixe) or à la carte.
A typical fixed price menu will comprise:
appetiser, called entrées or hors d'œuvres
main dish, called a plat [principal]
dessert (dessert) or cheese (fromage)
Sometimes, restaurants offer the option to take only two of the three courses, at a reduced price.
Coffee is always served as a final step, though it may be followed by liquors. Coffee will always be served black unless requested otherwise. For white coffee, ask for café au lait. A request for coffee during the meal will be considered strange.
Not all restaurants are open for both lunch and dinner, nor are they always open all year around. It is therefore advisable to carefully check the opening times and days. A restaurant open for lunch will usually start service at noon and accept patrons until 13:30. Dinner begins at around 19:30 and patrons are accepted until 21:30. Restaurants with longer service hours are usually found only in the larger cities and in town centres. Finding a restaurant open on Saturday and especially Sunday can be a challenge unless you stay close to the tourist areas.
In a reasonable number of restaurants, especially outside tourist areas, a booking is compulsory and people may be turned away without one, even if the restaurant is clearly not filled to capacity. For this reason, it can be worthwhile to research potential eateries in advance and make the necessary reservations to avoid disappointment, especially if the restaurant you're considering is specially advised in guide books.
A lunch of 2-3 courses for two on the menu including wine and coffee will cost you (as of 2018) €30-50 on average. A main course at dinner will cost €15-30 in a typical restaurant, while a typical dinner for two with beverages will cost €50-110. The same with beer in a local bistro or a crêperie around €35-55. You can, or course, spend considerably more.
Outside of Paris and the main cities, prices are not always lower but the menu will often include a fourth course, usually cheese. As with everywhere beware of the tourist traps which are numerous around the heavy travelled spots and may offer a nice view but not much to remember on your plate.
French waiters have a reputation for being rude, but this is largely undeserved. While there are certainly a few bad eggs who will seemingly go to any length to demonstrate their contempt for you as a customer, most perceptions of rudeness are simply down to travellers having certain expectations of service which are different to the French cultural norm.
So let's clear things up: in France the customer does not come first. You are not always right, your every whim does not have to be indulged, and the amount of money you flash will not entitle you to a superior service to others in the room. The vast majority of restaurants in France are privately-owned independents, with all the proprietary pride that entails; you as the customer are nothing more than a temporary guest in the restaurateur's home. That means you will be treated well, as long as you are polite and follow a few house rules. Humility and a sense of humour when mistakes happen can both go a long way in this game!
Upon arrival at a restaurant, wait at the door to be shown to your table. Seating yourself without being invited to do so is often taken to be presumptuous, and may result in your getting off on the wrong foot before you can even say bonjour. Asking for a dish to be changed for any reason is unusual and can be taken as a criticism of chef's cooking. If you don't like how a particular dish is prepared, or can't eat one of the ingredients, order something else. There is a reason the full menu is posted on every restaurant door, and that is to allow people to get an idea of what is on offer in advance of making a commitment to eat there. While dining, it is considered impolite to have your elbows on the table; ditto for laying your hands in your lap. If you are given a glass or a cup with your beverage, use it.
Waitering is a respected profession in France, and you should recognise this from the get-go. In the French psyche, a good waiter is there to make sure you receive your meal and drinks in the proper manner, and then to keep out of your way so you can enjoy yourself in peace. If you need something, ask and you shall receive, but don't expect to be approached during your meal, or for your needs to be anticipated in advance. Above all, don't copy the movies by addressing your waiter as garçon (boy), as this is demeaning and about a century out-of-date etiquette-wise. A simple excusez-moi is more than sufficient to attract the server's attention. One way to ensure good service can be to ask the waiter's recommendations for wine or to point out any local specialities on the menu; this shows that you respect their expertise and gives you the opportunity to learn more about the local cuisine.
You can show your appreciation at the end by leaving a small tip. Tipping is neither compulsory nor expected as the serving staff receive a full wage, and many establishments factor a 10% service charge into the price of the food (this is signalled with service compris printed on the bill or menu). Most French people, when deciding to tip, will just round up the bill to the next multiple of five – if a bill comes to €26, call it €30 and everyone's happy.
Bakery and customer with baguette
Bakeries (boulangeries) are something of a French institution and are to be found all over the country from the smallest villages to city streets. All white bread variants keep for only a short time and must be eaten the same day, or else saved for dunking in soup or hot chocolate the following morning. Hence bakers bake at least twice a day.
The famous baguette: a long, thin loaf;
Variants of the baguette : la ficelle (even thinner), la flûte, la tradition (a baguette with a generally more delicate taste but also more expensive);
Pain de campagne or Pain complet: made from whole grain which keeps relatively well.
Pastries are a large part of French cooking. Hotel breakfasts tend to be light, consisting of tartines (pieces of bread with butter or jam) or the famous croissants and pains au chocolat, not dissimilar to a chocolate-filled croissant, but square rather than crescent shaped.
Pastries can be found in a pâtisserie but also in most boulangeries.
Foie gras can be served in many different ways
Every French region has dishes all its own. These dishes follow the region's local produce from agriculture, hunting and fishing. Here is a small list of regional dishes which you can find easily in France. Generally each region has a unique and widespread dish, usually because it was food for the masses:
Cassoulet (in the south west) : beans, duck, pork & sausages
Choucroute, or sauerkraut (in Alsace) : stripped fermented cabbage + pork
Fondue Savoyarde (central Alps) : melted/hot cheese with white wine
Fondue Bourguignonne (in Burgundy) : pieces of beef (in boiled oil), usually served with a selection of various sauces.
Raclette (central Alps) : melted cheese & potatoes/meat
Pot-au-feu (found all over France) : boiled beef with vegetables
Boeuf Bourguignon (Burgundy) : slow cooked beef with red wine gravy
Gratin dauphinois (Rhone-Alpes) : oven-roasted slices of potatoes with sour cream and cheese
Aligot (Aveyron) : melted cheese mixed with a puree of potatoes
Bouillabaisse (fish + saffron) (Marseille and the French Riviera). Don't be fooled! A real bouillabaisse is a really expensive dish due to the amount of fresh fish it requires. Be prepared to pay at least €30 per person. If you find restaurants claiming to serve bouillabaisse for something like €15 per person, you'll find it to be of a very poor quality.
Tartiflette (Savoie) : Melted Reblochon cheese, potatoes and pork or bacon.
Confit de Canard (south west) : Duck Confit, consists of legs and wings bathing in grease. That grease is actually very healthy and, with red wine, is one of the identified sources of the so-called "French Paradox" (eat richly, live long).
Foie Gras (south west) : The liver of a duck or goose. Although usually quite expensive, foie gras can be found in supermarkets for a lower price (because of their purchasing power) around the Christmas season. It is the time of year when most foie gras is consumed in France. It goes very well with Champagne.
Moules marinière (found all along the coast, with large regional differences) : Mussels steamed in wine or cider (Brittany and Normandy) with a variety of local produce, e.g. simple shallots and garlic in the north, cream in the west, tomatoes and peppers in the south, etc… Normally served with crusty bread and frites.
Cooking and drinking is a notable part of French culture; take time to eat and discover new dishes.
Contrary to stereotype, snails and frog legs are quite infrequent foods in France, with many French people enjoying neither, or sometimes having never even tasted them. Quality restaurants sometimes have them on their menu: if you're curious about trying new foods, go ahead.
Frog legs (cuisses de grenouille) have a very fine and delicate taste with flesh that is not unlike chicken. They are often served in a garlic dressing and are no weirder to eat than, say, crab.
Most of the taste of Burgundy snails (escargots de bourgogne) comes from the generous amount of butter, garlic and parsley in which they are cooked. They have a very particular spongy-leathery texture and, for obvious reasons, a strong garlicky flavour. Catalan-style snails (cargols) are made a completely different way, and taste even weirder!
Let us also cite:
Rillettes sarthoises also known as Rillettes du Mans. A sort of potted meat, made from finely shredded and spiced pork. A delicious speciality of the Sarthe area in the north of the Pays de la Loire and not to be confused with rillettes from other areas, which are more like a rough pâté.
Beef bone marrow (os à moelle). Generally served in small quantities, with a large side. So go ahead: if you don't like it, you'll have something else to eat on your plate!
Veal sweetbread (ris de veau), is a very fine (and generally expensive) delicacy, often served with morels, or in more elaborate dishes like bouchées à la reine.
Beef bowels (tripes) is served either à la mode de Caen (with a white wine sauce, named after the town in Normandy) or à la catalane (with a slightly spiced tomato sauce)
Andouillettes are sausages made from tripe, a specialty of Lyon
Tricandilles are seasoned and grilled pork tripe from the Bordeaux region
Beef tongue (langue de bœuf) and beef nose (museau) and Veal head (tête de veau) are generally eaten cold (but thoroughly cooked!) as an appetizer.
Oysters (huîtres) are most commonly served raw in a half shell. They are often graded by size, No1 being the largest (and most expensive).
Oursins (sea urchins), for those who like concentrated iodine.
Steak tartare a big patty of ground beef cured in acid as opposed to cooked, frequently served with a raw egg. Good steak tartare will be prepared to order at tableside. A similar dish is boeuf carpaccio, which is thin slices or strips of raw steak drizzled with olive oil and herbs.
Cervelle (pronounced ser-VELL), lamb brain.
France is certainly the country for cheese (fromage), with nearly 400 different kinds. Indeed, former president General Charles De Gaulle was quoted as saying "How can you govern a country which has 365 varieties of cheese?".
Vegetarianism is not as uncommon as it used to be, especially in larger cities. Still, very few restaurants offer vegetarian menus, thus if you ask for something vegetarian the only things they may have available are salad and vegetable side dishes.
There may still be confusion between vegetarianism and pescetarianism. Vegetarian and organic food restaurants are starting to appear. However, "traditional" French restaurants may not have anything vegetarian on the menu fixe, so you may have to pick something à la carte, which is usually more expensive.
Luckily North African cuisine is very popular in France, couscous is one of the most popular dishes in France (especially in Eastern France) and is widely available.
Veganism is still very uncommon and it may be difficult to find vegan eateries. Nonetheless, the French vegan community made some tools to help find vegan food & restaurants : vegan-mafia.com and vegoresto.fr.
Pretty much every town has at least one halal restaurant or takeaway, and many also have halal butchers. Kosher (look for signs with kasher, cachère and other similar words) restaurants and shops are less common outside the large cities.
Breakfast in France is usually very light, typically consisting of a coffee and a croissant or some other viennoiserie at special occasions. On normal days most people have a beverage (coffee, tea, hot chocolate, orange juice) and toast of baguette or toast bread with butter and jam/honey/Nutella that can be dipped in the hot beverage, or cereals with milk, or fruit and yoghurt. The French breakfast is mostly sweet, but anything can change and you can have savoury breakfasts everywhere today.
Champagne, Burgundy, Bordeaux, Rhone, the Loire Valley… France is the home of wine. It can be found cheaply just about anywhere. Beer (lager) is also extremely popular, in particular in northern France, where "Bière de Garde" can be found. The alcohol purchase age was recently raised to 18 for all drinks, but this is not always strictly enforced; however, laws against drunk driving are strictly enforced, with stiff penalties.
French wine is classified mainly by the region it comes from. Many wines don't label the variety of grape that was used, so to know what you're getting, you have to learn what types of wine each region is known for. Wines are usually labeled with the region (which may be broad or very specific) and a quality level:
Roughly half of all wines are AOP (Appellation d'origine protégée), or AOC (Appellation d'origine contrôlée) in wines before 2012. For this highest tier, wine must come from designated areas with restrictions on the grape varieties, winemaking methods, and flavor profile.
Another third of wines are IGP (Indication géographique protégée), or Vin de Pays before 2012. These too are judged to meet the character of a region's wine, but have fewer restrictions than AOP/AOC wines.
The lowest tier are Vin de France, or Vin de Table before 2010, which are everyday table wines that are not labelled by region.
Wine and spirits may be purchased from supermarkets, or from specialised stores such as the Nicolas chain. Nicolas offers good advice on what to buy (specify the kind of wine and the price range you desire). In general, only French wines are available unless a foreign wine is a "speciality" with no equivalent in France (such as port), and they are classified by region of origin, not by grape.
Etiquette-wise, you shouldn't drink alcoholic beverages (especially red wine or strong alcohol such as cognac) directly from a 70 cl bottle. Such behaviour is generally associated with drunkards (though if you are surrounded by college students, you may be OK). Drinking beer from a 25 to 50cl can or bottle is OK.
Prices of food and beverages will vary on whether they're served to you at the bar or sitting at a table – the same cup of espresso might cost €0.50 more if served at a table than at the bar, and €0.50 more again if served out on the terrace. Really, you're not paying so much for the beverage as for the table spot. Do consider the bar, though – while you will have to stand, café bars are often where a great deal of public discourse and interaction happens. In any event, cafés are required by law to post their prices somewhere in the establishment, usually either in the window or on the wall by the bar.
There are a couple of mixed drinks which seem to be more or less unique to France, and nearby francophone countries.
Panaché is a mix of beer and lemonade, basically a beer shandy.
Monaco is a Panaché with some grenadine syrup added.
Kir is a pleasant aperitif of white wine (in theory, Bourgogne Aligoté) or, less frequently, of champagne (then named kir royal and about twice the price of regular kir) and cassis (blackcurrant liqueur), or peche (peach), or mûre (blackberry).
Pastis is an anise-based (licorice-flavored) spirit, similar in taste to Sambuca or Ouzo, that is served with a few lumps of sugar and a small pitcher of cold water to dilute the liquor. It is traditionally enjoyed on very hot days, and as such is more popular in the south of the country but available more or less everywhere.
There is a variety of bottled water, including:
Évian, Thonon, Contrex, Volvic: mineral water
Perrier: fizzy water
Badoit: slightly fizzy and salty water.
France is a diverse and colourful country, and you'll find everything from stunning log chalets in the Alps, châteaux in the countryside and beach front villas on the Riviera…plus everything in between!
Hotels come in 5 categories from 1 to 5 stars. This is the official rating given by the Ministry of Tourism, and it is posted at the entrance on a blue shield. Stars are awarded according to objective yet somewhat outdated administrative criteria (area of the reception hall, percentage of rooms with en suite bathroom…).
Rates vary according to accommodation, location and sometimes high or low season or special events.
As of 2004, the rate for a *** hotel listed in a reliable guidebook falls between €70 (cheap) and €110 (expensive) for a double room without breakfast.
All hotels, by law, must have their rates posted outside (or visible from outside). These are maximum rates: a hotel can always offer a lower rate in order to fill up its rooms. Bargaining is not the norm but you can always ask for a discount.
Hotels in city centres or near train stations are often very small (15-30 rooms) which means that you should book ahead. Many newer hotels, business oriented, are found in the outskirts of cities and are sometimes larger structures (100 rooms or more); they may not be easy to reach with public transportation. The newer hotels are often part of national or international chains and have high standards. Many older hotels are now part of chains and provide standardized service but they retain their own atmosphere.
When visiting Paris, it is greatly advised to stay in the city proper; there are cheaper tourism hotels in the suburbs, but these cater to groups in motor coaches; they will be hard to reach by public transportation.
Along the autoroute (motorway) network, and at the entrance of cities, you'll find US-style motels; they are very often reachable only by car. Some motels (e.g. Formule 1) have minimal service, if you come in late you find an ATM-like machine, using credit cards, which will deliver a code in order to reach your assigned room.
B&Bs and Gîtes
Throughout France, mainly in rural areas but also in towns and cities, you can find B&Bs and gîtes.
B&Bs are known in French as "chambres d'hôtes" and are generally available on a night-by-night basis. By law, breakfast MUST be included in the advertised price for a chambre d'hôte. Bear this in mind when comparing prices with hotels, where breakfast is NOT included in the room price.
Gîtes or gîtes ruraux are holiday cottages, and generally rented out as a complete accommodation unit including a kitchen, mostly on a weekly basis. Literally the French word gîte just means a place to spend the night; however it is now mostly used to describe rental cottages or self-catering holiday homes, usually in rural parts of France. There are very few near or in the cities. Finding them requires buying a guide or, for greater choice, using the internet, as you will not find many signposted on the road.
Traditionally, gîtes provided basic good value accommodation, typically adjacent to the owner's household or in a nearby outbuilding. More recently the term has been extended, and can now be used to describe most country-based self-catering accommodation in France. Hence it includes accommodation as varied as small cottages to villas with private swimming pools.
During peak summer months the best self-catering gîtes require booking several months in advance.
There are thousands of B&Bs and gîtes in France rented out by foreign owners, particularly British and Dutch, and these tend to be listed, sometimes exclusively, with English-language or international organisations and websites that can be found by keying the words "chambres d'hôtes", "gîtes" or "gîtes de france" into any of the major search engines.
There is a large number of organisations and websites offering gîtes.
Gîtes de France
A France-wide cooperative organisation, Gîtes de France groups more than 50,000 rural places of accommodation together and was the first in France to offer a consistent rating system with comprehensive descriptions.
Despite the name, Gîtes de France offers B&B as well as holiday rental (gîte) accommodation.
The Gîtes de France rating system uses wheat stalks called épis (equivalent to a star rating), based on amenities rather than quality – though generally the two go together.
Through its website, bookings can be done directly with owners or through the local Gîtes de France booking agency (no extra fee for the traveller). Although an English language version is available for many of the website pages, for some departments the pages giving details of an individual gîte are only in French.
There is no particular advantage in using Gîtes de France rather than one of the other online gîtes sites, or booking directly with a gîte owner. The procedure is pretty standard for all gîte booking sites, whether French or foreign – with the advantage that the whole booking process can be done in English, which is not always the case with Gîtes de France.
After making a gîte booking you will receive, by post, a contract to sign (for gîtes only). Sign and return one copy. When signing write the words "Read and approved", and the name of your home town, before signing and dating the contract. You will normally be asked to pay a deposit of a quarter to a third of the booking fee. The rest will be required one month before the start of your holiday. When you arrive at the gîte a security deposit, specified in the contact, should be given to the owner in cash. This will be returned at the end of your stay, minus any fuel charges and breakages.
Another great resource for booking gîtes and villas in France is Holiday France Direct, which enables you to deal directly with the property owners and offers customers discounted ferry travel with Brittany Ferries.
Another possibility is gîtes d'étape. These are more like overnight stays for hikers, like a mountain hut. They are mostly cheaper than the Gîtes de France but also much more basic.
Short term rentals
Travellers should definitely consider short-term villa/apartment/studio rentals as an alternative to other accommodation options. Short term can be as few as several days up to months at a stretch. Summer rentals are usually from Saturday to Saturday only (July & August). This type accommodation belongs to a private party, and can range from basic to luxurious. A particular advantage, aside from competitive prices, is that the accommodations come with fully fitted kitchens.
Hundreds of agencies offer accommodation for short term rentals on behalf of the owner, and can guide you into finding the best property, at the best price in the most suitable location for you. An internet search for the location and type of property you're looking for will usually return the names of several listing sites, each of which may have hundreds or thousands of properties for you to choose from. There are plenty of sites in both English and French, and the rental properties may be owned by people of any nationality.
Well established holiday rental sites include Gitelink France, Holidaylettings.co.uk, Owners Direct and Alpha Holiday Lettings. If you are looking to stay in just a room or part of the property, Airbnb matches holiday makers with hosts who only rent out part of their homes.
Camping is very common in France. Most camp sites are a little way out of town and virtually all cater not just for tents but also for camper vans and caravans. While all camp sites have the basic facilities of shower and toilet blocks, larger sites tend to offer a range of additional facilities such as bars and restaurants, self-service launderettes, swimming pools or bicycle hire. All camp sites except for very small 'farm camping' establishments must be registered with the authorities, and are officially graded using a system of stars.
In coastal areas, three-star and four-star camp grounds must generally be booked in advance during the months of July and August, and many people book from one year to the next. In rural areas, outside of popular tourist spots, it is usually possible to show up unannounced, and find a place; this is particularly true with the municipal camp sites that can be found in most small towns; though even then it may be advisable to ring up or email in advance to make sure. There are always exceptions.
In France it's forbidden to camp:
in woods, natural, regional and national parks
on public roads and streets
less than 200 metres from watering place used for human consumption
on natural protected sites
less than 500 metres from a protected monument
everywhere where it's forbidden by local laws
on private properties without the owner's consent.
Camping is a great way to explore the local area as it offers you the freedom of being able to travel around at short notice. Larger more popular campsites can be booked through websites such as Eurocamp, Canvas Holidays, Go Camp France and France Break.
France, of course, is the best place to acquire, maintain and develop your French. A number of institutions offer a variety of courses for travellers.
Having been a major world power for much of its history, France is home to many well-regarded universities. The downside for English-only speakers is that degree programmes are generally conducted in French, though some universities may offer the option for postgraduate research students to complete their thesis in English. English is considered to be the international language in academic fields, so many French researchers publish their findings in English. The most prestigious universities in France are arguably the École normale supérieure de Paris, which counts many high profile French public figures among its graduates, and the École Polytechnique, which is home to one of the world's leading engineering schools. For business students, the Institut Européen d'Administration des Affaires (INSEAD) is one of the world's most prestigious business schools, with its MBA programme being regarded as on par with those of London Business School and the M7 business schools in the United States.
The grading system in France is idiosyncratic. In secondary schools and above, points are awarded out of 20, except that a score of 20/20 is not the maximum. As the saying goes, "20 is for God, 19 is for the king, 18 is for the Président de la République" (or variations thereof). To French natives, a "perfect score" would be a 19/20, but grading is competitive and harsh, so 10-15 is passing, and earning a 16 or above is exceptional (A+ level).
View of La Défense, the business district of Paris
If you are by law required to obtain a visa or other type of authorisation to work and fail to do so, you risk possible arrest, prosecution, expulsion and prohibition from re-entering France and the Schengen area.
Citizens of EU and EEA countries (save from some Eastern European countries, for a temporary period) and Switzerland can work in France without having to secure a work permit. Most non-EU citizens will need a work permit – however, some non-EU citizens (such as Canadians, New Zealanders etc.) do not require a visa or work permit to work during their 90 day visa-free period of stay in France (see the 'Get in' section above for more information).
If you are an EU citizen or from an EEA country and want to earn money to continue travelling, Interim agencies (e.g. Adecco, Manpower) are a good source of temporary jobs. You can also consider working in bars, restaurants, and/or nightclubs (they are often looking for English-speaking workers, particularly those restaurants in tourist areas – fast-food restaurants such as McDonald's and Quick are also always looking for people).
A lot of 'student jobs', if you happen to be in a big city, are also available for younger travellers, and foreigners are often very welcome. Such example jobs include giving private English lessons, taking care of young children (i.e. au pairing) among other things…check out the buildings of various universities as they often have a lot of advertisements. An easy way to find jobs in France is to use dedicated search engines offered by various employment websites.
Don't forget that being an English speaker is a big advantage when you're looking for a job – French employers really have a problem finding English-speaking workers. However, it will be much easier for you if you know a bit of French, for the same reason (your colleagues are not likely to speak English). However, don't overestimate your chances of finding work; there are often more people applying for jobs than there are vacancies.
The French labour market tends to operate through personal contacts – if you know someone that works somewhere, you can probably figure out quite an easy way to work at that place too. It always helps to know people living in the area you wish to work.
Municipal police officers in Strasbourg
Crime-related emergencies can be reported to the toll-free number 17 or 112 (European emergency telephone number). Law enforcement agencies are the National Police (Police nationale) in urban areas and the Gendarmerie nationale in the countryside, though for minor crimes such as parking and traffic offences some towns and villages also have a municipal police force (Police municipale).
While it remains among the safest countries in the world, France has seen a noticeable surge in crime, mostly in large metropolitan areas that are plagued with the usual woes. Violent crime against visitors is generally rare, but pickpocketing and purse-snatching are very common, some of which can result in aggravated assaults. If the usual precautions against therse are taken, you should be safe.
The inner city areas and a few select suburbs are usually safe at all hours. In large cities, especially Paris, there are a few areas which should be avoided. Parts of the suburbs are hives of youth gang-related activities and drug dealing; however these are almost always far from tourist areas and you should have no reason to visit them. Common sense applies: it is very easy to spot derelict areas.
The subject of crime in poorer suburbs and areas is very touchy as it may easily have racist overtones, since many people associate it with working-class youth of North African and Sub-Saharan origins. You probably should not express an opinion on the issue.
While it is not compulsory for French citizens to carry identification, they usually do so. Foreigners should carry some kind of official identity document. Although random checks are not the norm, you may be asked for ID in some kinds of situations, for example if you cannot show a valid ticket when using public transportation; not having one in such cases will result in you being taken to a police station for further checks. Even if you feel that law enforcement officers have no right to check your identity (they can do so only in certain circumstances), it is a bad idea to enter a legal discussion with them; it is better to put up with it and show your ID. Again, the subject is sensitive as the police have often been accused of targeting people according to criteria of ethnicity (e.g. délit de sale gueule = literally "crime of a dirty face" but perhaps equivalent to the American "driving while black.")
Due to the international threat of terrorism, police with the help of military units, often patrol monuments, the Paris Metro, train stations and airports. Depending on the status of the "Vigipirate" plan (anti terrorist units) it is not uncommon to see armed patrols in those areas. The presence of police should be of help to tourists, as it also deters pickpockets and the like. However, suspicious behaviour, public disturbances etc., may attract police officers' attention for the wrong reasons.
In France, failing to offer assistance to 'a person in danger' is a criminal offence in itself. This means that if you fail to stop upon witnessing a motor accident, fail to report such an accident to emergency services, or ignore appeals for help or urgent assistance, you may be charged. Penalties include suspended prison sentence and fines. The law does not apply in situations where answering an appeal for help might endanger your life or the lives of others.
Carrying or using narcotic substances, from marijuana to hard drugs, is illegal whatever the quantity. The penalty can be severe especially if you are suspected of dealing. Trains and cars coming from countries which have a more lenient attitude (such as the Netherlands) are especially targeted. Police have often been known to stop entire coaches and search every passenger and their bags thoroughly.
France has a liberal policy with respect to alcohol; there are usually no ID checks for purchasing alcohol (unless you look much younger than 18). However, causing problems due to public drunkenness is a misdemeanor and may result in a night spent in the cells of a police station. Drunk driving is a severe offence and may result in heavy fines and jail sentences.
A little etiquette note: while it is common to drink beer straight from the bottle at informal meetings, doing the same with wine is normally only done by tramps (clochards).
Tap water (eau du robinet) is drinkable, except in rare cases such as in rural rest areas and sinks in railway carriage toilets, in which case it will be clearly signposted as eau non potable. Eau potable is drinkable water (you may, however, not like the taste and prefer bottled water).
Tap water is generally acceptable in taste, but mineral water (eau minérale) is generally considered to taste better, except in areas that use mountain water from the Alps for their municipal supply. Volvic and Évian are cheap and available most everywhere, and many locals consider them nothing special. You may find Vittel a more interesting-tasting inexpensive French mineral water, and Badoit, a sparkling water, is quite good.
French pharmacy signs often feature a display showing time and temperature
Health care in France is of a very high standard.
Pharmacies are denoted by a green cross, usually in flashing neon (or LED). They sell medicine, contraceptives, and often beauty and related products (though these can be very expensive). Medicines must be ordered from the counter, even non-prescription medicines. The pharmacist may ask you questions about your symptoms and then can recommend various medicines and suggest generic drugs.
Since drug brand names vary across countries even though the effective ingredients stay the same, it is better to carry prescriptions using the international nomenclature in addition to the commercial brand name. Prescription drugs, including oral contraceptives (aka "the pill"), will only be delivered if a doctor's prescription is shown.
In addition, supermarkets sell condoms (préservatifs) and also often personal lubricant, bandages, disinfectant and other minor medical items. Condom machines are often found in bar toilets, etc.
Medical treatment can be obtained from self-employed physicians, clinics and hospitals. Most general practitioners, specialists (e.g. gynaecologists), and dentists are self-employed; look for signs saying Docteur (médecin généraliste means general practitioner). The normal price for a consultation with a general practitioner is €23, though some physicians charge more (this is the full price and not a co-payment). Physicians may also do home calls, but these are more expensive.
Residents of the European Union are covered by the French social security system, which will reimburse or directly pay for 70% of health expenses (30% co-payment) in general, though many physicians and surgeons apply surcharges. Other travellers are not covered and will be billed the full price, even when at a public hospital; non-EU travellers should have travel insurance covering medical costs.
Hospitals will have an emergency room signposted Urgences.
The following numbers are toll-free:
15 Medical emergencies
17 Law enforcement emergencies (for e.g. reporting a crime)
112 European standard emergency number.
Operators at these numbers can transfer requests to other services if needed (e.g. some medical emergencies may be answered by firefighter groups).
Smoking is prohibited by law in all enclosed spaces accessible to the public (this includes train and metro cars, and station enclosures, workplaces, restaurants and cafés) unless in areas specifically designated for smoking, and there are few of these. There was an exception for restaurants and cafés, but since the 1st January 2008, the smoking ban is also enforced in those locations. You may face a fine of €68 if you are found smoking in these places.
As well as police officers, metro and train conductors can and do enforce the anti-smoking law and will fine you for smoking in non-designated places; if you encounter problems with a smoker in train, you may go find the conductor.
As hotels are not considered public places, some offer smoking and non-smoking rooms.
Only people over the age of 18 may purchase tobacco products. Shopkeepers may request a photo ID. A pack of 20 cigarettes costs around €6.
The French adhere to a strong set of values. They cherish their culture, history, language and cuisine, which is revered by many around the globe. Once gained acquaintance, the French become warm, sincere and welcoming.
The French have an undeserved reputation from many tourists and visitors alike for being "rude" or "arrogant", but this is simply a cross-cultural misunderstanding. Communication, as in many places in Europe, tends to be straightforward and small-talk is seldom engaged in unless there's a close relationship.
The French are direct communicators. They are generally more direct at giving negative feedback than many European countries, and people tend to be unafraid of expressing their feelings, thoughts and emotions clearly. If you do or say something that offends a French person, you will be told immediately. Although it may feel like you're in the company of people who are constantly dissatisfied with everything, perhaps even yourself, do not be offended or insulted in any way as this all is not intended to make you feel bad about yourself.
On the Métro
Beautiful entrance to a metropolitain station in Paris
The Métro subway system is a great way to get around Paris (or Lyon, Marseille, et al.), a fact which is readily apparent by the throngs of people that use it to get to work, school, and the like. If you do not ride the train at home, or if you come from a place that doesn't have a subway system, there are certain points of etiquette that you may not be aware of:
When boarding at the station, let those exiting the train step off onto the platform before boarding, and once aboard move to the centre of the car.
If you have luggage, move it as far out of the path of others as possible.
Certain stations have moving walkways to cover the distances between platforms – walk on the left and stand on the right!
Finally, the doors on French subway cars don't generally open automatically once the train has stopped at the station; rather, most cars have a small button or lever on the doors that opens them. If you should happen to be standing near the door in a crowded car you might hear someone behind you say "la porte, s'il vous plait," which means that person would like to get off the train and is asking you to open the door for him/her. Pop the door open and step aside (or down onto the platform) while that person exits the train – the driver will wait for you to get back on.
It is considered very rude to be loud in a crowded place, such as in a metro car or at a restaurant. Keep in mind that, though you may be enjoying your holiday, most people around you on the métro or in other places are probably going about their daily lives and may be tired and thus will react very coldly to tourists babbling at the top of their lungs.
In many shops in France, you must ask the shopkeeper to take items from the shelf, as opposed to picking them for yourself. This applies in liquor or wine stores, some clothing stores, etc. Failure to respect this policy might result in confused and/or angered reactions from the shopkeeper.
Dress codes are fast disappearing, but if you want to avoid looking like a tourist or being seen in a negative light, then avoid white trainers, baseball caps, tracksuit pants (or tracksuits in general), shorts (though these are tolerated in the summer) and flip-flops (except at the beach). Generally speaking, business casual dress code is sufficient in cities and in all but the most formal occasions.
The usual courtesy applies when entering churches, and, although you may not be asked to leave, it is better to avoid short pants and halter tops. Men should remove any headgear when inside a church, contrary to when visiting a synagogue or mosque when you may be given a hat or headscarf to wear.
Some restaurants will frown if you come in dressed for trekking, but very few will insist upon a jacket and tie. You may be surprised by the number of French twenty-somethings who show up at a grungy bar in jacket and tie, even if obviously from a thrift shop.
Beaches and swimming pools (in hotels) are primarily used for getting a tan. Taking off your bikini top while sunbathing will not usually create a stir, if you don't mind a bevy of oglers. Taking off your bikini bottom is reserved to designated nude beaches, where wearing clothing is prohibited. People on beaches are usually not offended by a toddler being nude. Most resort cities insist on your wearing a shirt when leaving the beach area.
Because of a 1903 national law, public swimming pools require everyone to wear suitable swimming attire. They interpret this as meaning swim caps (even if you're bald) and snug-fitting, generally smaller-sized, Lycra-based swimsuits for everyone in a swimming pool. Aside from the occasional local politician posturing about the threat that modest swimsuits pose to France's secular traditions, their main goal these days is to keep you from getting sand and hair into their filtering system, so the key to success in choosing a swimsuit is to pick something that nobody would ever dream of wearing anywhere except in the swimming pool. This means that baggy or "board" swim shorts are banned, as are T-shirts, UV-protective rash guards, and other cover-ups, since you might be tempted to wear those while kicking around town all day, and then jump in the pool with all the sweat, sand, and dirt you've accumulated during the day. Most men wear skin-tight swimsuits with very short legs rather than the stereotypical Speedo bikini, and the knee-length jammers favored by competitive swimmers are usually accepted. "Unnecessary" fabric, such as women's swim skirts or the cute ruffles on some little girls' swimsuits, seem to be accepted in some pools and not others. If you're unlucky in your choice, then most public pools sell pre-approved swimsuits in vending machines on site, sometimes for rather inflated prices. Watch also for local prohibitions on sunscreen: in the quest to preserve the sometimes-elderly pool filtration systems, sunscreen may also be banned, and at any rate should have been applied at least 20 minutes before your arrival, at which point it should pose no significant threat to the pool anyway.
Breastfeeding in public is very rare, but nobody will mind if you do.
How to address people ("Tu" and "vous")
L'anglais et les Français
While most people in France have studied English, they are often unable or unwilling to use it. This is not necessarily linguistic snobbery, and politeness is much appreciated from visitors, and you will find the liberal use of Excusez-moi ("Excuse me"), S'il vous plaît ("please") and Merci ("thank you") will go a long way. You should always politely ask the person if they speak English — "Parlez-vous anglais?"
The French language has two different forms of the pronoun "you" that are used when addressing someone in the second person. Tu is the second-person singular and vous is nominally the second-person plural. However, in many situations, French speakers will use vous for the second-person singular. While one will use vous to address a group of people no matter what the circumstances, non-native speakers will invariably have some difficulty when trying to determine whether to address a person with the informal and friendly tu or the formal and respectful vous. The language even has two special verbs reflecting this difference: tutoyer (to address a person using tu), and vouvoyer (to address a person using vous), each of them carrying their own connotations and implications. Unfortunately, the rules as to when to use which form can sometimes seem maddeningly opaque to the non-native French speaker.
Generally speaking, one will only use the tu form to address someone in an informal situation where there is familiarity or intimacy between the two parties. For example, tu is used when addressing a close friend or spouse, or when an adult child is addressing a parent. Tu is also used in situations where the other party is very young, such as a parent speaking to a child or a schoolteacher to a student.
In contrast, vous is used in situations where the parties are not familiar, or where it is appropriate to convey respect and/or deference. For example, an office worker might use tu to address co-workers that he works closely with, but he would probably use vous when speaking to the receptionist whom he rarely talks to. He certainly wouldn't use tu when speaking with his boss. In that same vein, police officers and other authorities should always be addressed with vous.
If that's confusing the key thing to remember is that it's all about distance. For example, a bartender is vous up until the moment that he or she gives you a complementary drink, at which point tu becomes more appropriate, and the use of vous would be a bit ungrateful and off-putting.
For foreigners, the best way to deal with the tu / vous problem is to address people using vous until invited to say tu, or until addressed by your first name. Doing so will look perhaps a shade old fashioned, but always respectful. In most cases, if French is not your native language most French people will overlook any such overly formal and polite language without thinking much about it anyway. Doing the opposite can be pretty rude and embarrassing in some situations, so it's probably best to err on the side of caution.
Simplified: Use vous unless:
the person is genuinely your friend;
the person is under 16; ou
you've been explicitly told to use tu
If talking to someone you don't know well enough to use tu with, you should always address them initially as Monsieur (for a man) or Madame / Mademoiselle (for a woman) — the issue doesn't arise with children, who are always tu. Bonjour Monsieur (for instance, on entering a shop with a male shopkeeper) is much more polite than just bonjour. But this creates further complications when addressing women. Traditionally, Madame is used to address married women, and Mademoiselle for younger and/or unmarried women. However, many find the practice to be sexist, and unless you know someone prefers to be addressed as Mademoiselle it's better to use Madame. Addressing a waiter as garçon ("boy") is very rude (despite what you may have seen in films).
French people generally enjoy debates, discussions, and friendly arguments, but some topics should be treated more delicately or indirectly:
Unless you really follow French news closely, you should steer clear of discussing French politics, especially sensitive issues such as immigration. Be aware of the position that being a foreigner puts you in. It is considered rude to ask a person point-blank about which candidate they voted for in an election; instead, talk about the issues and take it from there.
It is generally considered impolite to have a conversation about religion with someone you do not know well. The French are fiercely protective of their tradition of secularism (laïcité). For instance, the wearing of religious items of clothing, such as hijabs, kippas or crucifixes, is illegal for public servants when they are at work, and for all students and staff at public schools. It is also illegal to cover your face in public, which effectively outlaws the burqa (and masks, balaclavas etc.) This has been interpreted by some as an anti-Muslim law.
France remains a majority Roman Catholic country, though due to the culture of secularism, religion plays virtually no role in French public life, and church attendance levels are among the lowest in the world. However, you are still expected to behave in a respectful manner when visiting churches.
You should also avoid presenting yourself through your possessions (house, car, etc.). It is considered to be quite crass to discuss your salary, or to ask someone else directly about theirs. Instead express your enthusiasm about how great are the responsibilities, or how lucky you were to get there, etc.
While roughly one sixth of the country's population lives in the Paris region, don't treat France as Paris or assume that all French people act like Parisians. Life in Paris can be closer to life in London or New York City than in the rest of France, and Parisian customs and opinions differ from those found en province. Brittany, Corsica and the Basque Country in particular have their own national identities.
To call a French number from abroad, dial: international prefix + 33 + local number without the leading 0.
For example: +33 2 47 66 41 18
All French numbers have 10 digits. The first two digits are:
01 for the Paris region
02 for the north west
03 for the north east
04 for south east
05 for south west
06 for cellphones
07 also for cellphones
08 have special prices that can be deduced from the two following figures: from free – 08 00 – to very costly (as far as €20.40 per hour) – 08 99. Skype numbers also start with 08.
09 if they are attached to voice-over IP telephones connected to DSL modems from French DSL providers that integrate such functions.
You cannot drop the first two digits even if your call remains within the same area. The initial '0' may be replaced by some other digit or longer code indicating a choice of long-distance operator. Don't use this unless explicitly told to.
When speaking phone numbers, people will usually group the digits by sets of two. For example, 02 47 66 41 18 will be said as "zéro deux, quarante-sept, soixante-six, quarante et un, dix-huit". The two-digit pair 00 is said as "zéro zéro", not "double zéro". If you find it too hard to follow, you may ask the person to say the number digit-by-digit ("chiffre par chiffre"). It would then be "zéro, deux, quatre, sept, six, six, quatre, un, un, huit".
There are few companies that provide toll-free numbers (often starting with 08 00) and there are also numbers which start with 081, for which you pay the cost of a local call regardless of where you are in the country.
Numbers starting with 089 carry a premium toll. They provide service to some legitimate businesses but the ones you see advertised all over the country are usually for adult services.
Emergency numbers are 15 (medical aid), 17 (police station) and 18 (fire/rescue). You can also use the European emergency number 112 (perhaps a better choice if you don't speak French). These calls are free and accessible from virtually any phone, including locked cellphones. In case of a serious emergency, if you find a code-protected cellphone, enter a random code three times: the phone will lock, but you will be able to dial emergency numbers.
Cheap international calls
To enjoy cheap international calls from France travellers can get a local sim card online before they leave or use low-cost dial-around services such as appellemonde or allo2556 [dead link].
Dial-around services are directly available from any landline in France. No contract or registration is required. Most dial-around services allows you to call the USA, Canada, Western Europe and many other countries at the local rate (tarif local) so you can easily save on your phone bill. They also work from payphones, though the first minute is surcharged by France Télécom.
If you need a landline (ligne fixe) in France, use VoIP over DSL, such as the Livebox or Freebox service (free long distance calls within France and to a number of countries).
Due to the widespread use of mobile phones, phone booths have been largely dismantled. You may still find one in some rural areas that are not yet covered by mobile networks. Most use a card (no coins). They accept CB/Visa/MasterCard cards but almost always only with a microchip.
France uses the GSM standard of cellular phones (900 MHz and 1800 MHz bands) used in most of the world outside of the U.S. There are several companies (Orange, SFR, Free, Bouygues Télécom and some others MVNOs like Virgin Mobile) offering wireless service. The country is almost totally covered but you may have difficulties using your mobile phone in rural or mountainous areas. However, for emergency numbers, the three companies are required by law to accept your call if they technically can, even if you are not one of their customers, thus maximizing your chance of being helped even in areas with spotty service.
If you stay for some time, it may be advisable to buy a pre-paid cell phone card that you can use in any phone that supports the GSM standard on the 900/1800 MHz bands. Then incoming calls and SMSes are free. You can get it from most mobile service provider (Orange, SFR and Bouygues Telecom), but they have a very short validity for the card if you don't recharge it.
An Orange pre-paid SIM card is called a Mobicarte, costs €9.90 and comes with a credit of €5 included. SMSes within Orange France cost €0.12; to international mobile GSM users €0.28. Other operators (SFR, Bouygues) have similar prices. Since 2012, the mobile operator Free offers 2€/month subscription without any minimum subscription time including 120 minutes per month and unlimited national SMSes. This is only available through the web and you need a postal address.
Internet cafés: Internet access is available in cyber cafés all over large and medium-sized cities. Service is usually around €4 per hour.
Residential broadband: In all major cities, there are multiple companies offering residential broadband service. Typical prices are €30 a month for unmetered ADSL (with speeds of up to 24 megabits per second), digital HDTV over DSL and free unlimited voice-over-IP phone calls to land lines within France and about twenty other countries (EU, US…) with external SIP access too (the price includes a modem/router/switch with integrated WiFi MiMo access point).
Wi-Fi: You'll also find wifi access (in cities and towns) in a lot of cafés usually those labelled a bit "trendy". There will be a sign on the door or on the wall. Also look for the @ symbol prominently displayed, which indicates internet availability. However, with most homes now wired for the internet, cyber cafés are increasingly hard to find, especially outside the major cities. In Paris, one popular free wifi spot is the Pompidou Centre. There is talk that the city intends to become the first major European capital providing free wifi coverage for the whole city. Public parks and libraries in Paris are also covered.
Also, check out Carrefour, most of them have free Wi-Fi.
Wi-Fi is prounonced "wee-fee" in France even by English speakers. Asking for "wye-fie" will generally not be understood.
Short-term SIM cards
(for smartphones and tablets)
Orange has nearly-unlimited Internet 1-month package for €9 called InternetMax. The official limit of 500MB is not enforced. Tethering is not allowed, but this is also not enforced. Email (POP3/SMTP/IMAP) is not covered, and sold as a separate package for €9 per month. P2P, VoIP and USENET are specifically banned, and risk getting your plan cancelled as well as the loss of any call credit remaining on your account.
To set this service up:
buy a 'mobicarte' (generic prepaid SIM card) at an Orange outlet for €9.90 which comes included with credit of €5
recharge it with €4 (with a credit card at an Orange outlet or with a €5-euro recharge sold at tobacco kiosks and news stands everywhere).
turn off mobile data connection and disable all email applications using POP3/IMAP/SMTP at smartphone before inserting SIM card, otherwise it will suck up the credit well before you activate the unlimited data plan
wait for 24 hours for the SIM card to be activated before you can add packages
activate the InternetMax data plan with #123#. The menu is in French, refer to the link below for summary in English.
allow several hours (officially up to 48hrs) for InternetMax to be activated. There's no notification, so check it regularly: surf a bit and check your credit with #123#
As the plan is not marketed by Orange, staff at outlets and hotline operators are often completely unaware of it, and Orange website tells very little on it even in French. If your French is poor, detailed third-party instructions can be very helpful.
Post offices ("La Poste") are found in all cities and villages but their opening hours vary. In the main cities the central office may be open during lunchtime; typically the day's opening hours are 09:00 to 18:00. Most offices are only open on Saturday morning and there is only one office in Paris which is open 24 hours and 365 days (on the Rue du Louvre).
Letter boxes are coloured in yellow.
There are three levels of service for French domestic mail (Andorra and Monaco included):
Priority Letter (lettre prioritaire), usually arrives next day. Cost (up to 20g): €1.05
Green Letter (lettre verte), usually arrives in two days. Cost (up to 20g): €0.88
Economy Letter (écopli), usually arrives in four days. Cost (up to 20g): €0.86
For international mail, there is only one service:
Priority Letter (lettre prioritaire), cost (up to 20g): €1.30 (to European Union and Switzerland), €1.30 (all other countries)
Rates correct as of May 2019.
International delivery services like FedEx and UPS are available in cities, however you generally have to call them for them to come to you as they have very few physical locations.
Another option is to simply use La Poste with a wide network around the country and the same services as its competitors.